The broad pennant combination of the English Flag at the hoist and the Dutch National Flag in the fly originates from the Anglo-Dutch wars of the late 17th century, when it was used on Sundays to indicate that a service was in progress and a ceasefire existed between the warring nations.
The United States Navy maintains several church pennants, of which the appropriate one is flown immediately above the ensign wherever the ensign is displayed, at the gaff when under way, or at the flagstaff when not under way, when religious services are held aboard ship by a Navy chaplain. Originally, the only authorized church pennant was for Christian chaplains, regardless of specific denomination. Later in 1975, the Secretary of Navy approved a similar Jewish worship pennant.
- "France: Naval flags". Flags of the World. 2007-05-05. Retrieved 2009-05-04.
- "Church Pennant (Britain)". Flags of the World. 2006-02-05. Retrieved 2009-05-04.
- "Church pennant (The Netherlands)". Flags of the World. 2006-02-25. Retrieved 2009-05-04.
- "Navy - Church Pennants (U.S.)". Flags of the World. 2006-03-04. Retrieved 2009-05-04.
- "Naval Customs, Traditions, & Etiquette – Church Pennant". U.S. Fleet Forces. United States Navy.