Émile Arnaud (1864—1921) was a French lawyer, notary, and writer noted for his anti-war rhetoric and for coining the term "pacifism". Arnaud founded the "Ligue Internationale de la Paix et de la Liberté" (International League for Peace and Freedom) in 1861 and was elected its first president. In 1901, he codified his beliefs into a treatise entitled the Code de la Paix, outlining and defining the goals, political positions and methodology of the Peace movement in general. He described this new political movement as "pacifism", setting it up as a counterbalance to the belligerence of emerging political ideologies such as Socialism and Anarchism. He advocated for humanism, for charity and tolerance, for non-violent conflict resolution and for reaching mutually beneficial political solutions through establishing consensus.
On the outbreak of World War I, in 1914 although overage for military service Arnaud volunteered and ended the war with the Croix de guerre
- L'organization de la paix . Berne: Bureau international de la paix, 1899.
- "Code de la Paix", in: L'Indépendance belge, 1901.
- Le Pacifisme et ses détracteurs . Paris: Aux bureaux de la Grande Revue, 1906.
- Imbusch, Peter; Peace and Conflict Studies: An Introduction. VS Verlag, 2006, p. 527, ISBN 3-531-34426-9
- Mauermann, Helmut; The International Peace Bureau from 1892 to 1950. Silver Castle Science 284, Stuttgart (1990) ISBN 3-925344-78-0