Abaris the Hyperborean
- Abaris redirects here. For the Baroque opera see Les Boréades
Abaris the Hyperborean (Greek: Ἄβαρις Ὑπερβόρειος, Abaris Hyperboreios), son of Seuthes, was a legendary sage, healer, and priest of Apollo known to the Ancient Greeks. He was supposed to have learned his skills in his homeland of Hyperborea, near the Caucasus, which he fled during a plague. He was said to be endowed with the gift of prophecy, and by this as well as by his Scythian dress and simplicity and honesty he created great sensation in Greece, and was held in high esteem.
According to Herodotus he was said to have traveled around the world with an arrow  symbolizing Apollo, eating no food. Heraclides Ponticus wrote that Abaris flew on it. Plato (Charmides 158C) classes him amongst the "Thracian physicians" who practice medicine upon the soul as well as the body by means of "incantations" (epodai). He is said to have constructed the Palladium; and to have somehow been close to Pythagoras, who lived over 600 years afterwords. Abaris was said to have uttered many prophecies, including earthquakes, and was able to end storms.  A temple to Persephone at Sparta was attributed to Abaris by Pausanias (9.10). Alan H. Griffiths compares Abaris to Aristeas in terms of being a "shamanistic missionary and savior-figure" and notes Pindar places Abaris during the time of Croesus.
A particularly rich trove of anecdotes is found in Iamblichus's Vita Pythagorica.  Here, Abaris is said to have purified Sparta and Knossos, among other cities, from plagues (VP 92–93). Abaris also appears in a climactic scene alongside Pythagoras at the court of the Sicilian tyrant Phalaris. The two sages discuss divine matters, and urge the obstinate tyrant towards virtue (ibid. 215–221). Iamblicus also attributes to Abaris a special expertise at extispicy, the art of predicting future events through the examination of anomalies in the entrails of animals. The Suda attributes a number of books to Abaris, including a volume of Scythian Oracles in dactylic hexameter, a prose theogony, a poem on the marriage of the river Hebrus, a work on purifications, and an account of Apollo's visit to the Hyperboreans. But such works, if they were really current in ancient times, were no more genuine than his reputed correspondence with Phalaris the tyrant.
A more securely historical Greco-Scythian philosopher, who travelled among the Hellenes in the early sixth century, was Anacharsis.
- A Senior Society at Dartmouth College is named Abaris after this figure; it is one of eight Senior Societies among Dartmouth College student groups.
- Abaris is featured in Therion songs "An Arrow From The Sun", "The Wand of Abaris", and "The Falling Stone".
In popular culture
A modern interpretation of Abaris the Hyperborean features prominently in episodes 92-120 of 2-Love Magical Plus! where he serves as the agent of an unknown force of evil by employing his magical talent and ruthless cunning.
Abaris is referred to in Star Trek 4 when Bones and Scotty are trying to barter with a man who runs a polymer factory.
Abaris is an ancestor of the Griffin Family in the Unexpected Enlightenment series. (First book: The Unexpected Enlightenment of Rachel Griffin by L. Jagi Lamplighter.)
- Ovid, Metamorphoses v. 86
- Strabo, Geographica 7.3.8.
- "Hence the dart of Abaris" (Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable)
- Herodotus Hist., Historiae Book 4, section 36, line 2 Τὸν γὰρ περὶ Ἀβάριος λόγον· τοῦ λεγομένου εἶναι Ὑπερβορέου οὐ λέγω, λέγοντα ὡς τὸν ὀϊστὸν περιέφερε κατὰ πᾶσαν γῆν οὐδὲν σιτεόμενος.
- Herodotus, Histories 4.36
- William Godwin (1876). "Lives of the Necromancers". p. 47.
- Griffiths, Alan H. (2003), "Abaris", in Hornblower, Simon; Spawforth, Anthony, The Oxford Classical Dictionary (3rd ed.), Oxford: OxfordUP, p. 1, ISBN 978-0-19-860641-3
- Iamblichus Phil., De vita Pythagorica Chapter 28, section 136, line 4 δῆλα δ' αὐτῶν τὰ ποιήματα ὑπάρχει, ἄλλως τε καὶ ἀλεξανέμας μὲν ὂν τὸ ἐπώνυμον Ἐμπεδοκλέους, καθαρτὴς δὲ τὸ Ἐπιμενίδου, αἰθροβάτης δὲ τὸ Ἀβάριδος, ὅτι ἄρα ὀιστῷ τοῦ ἐν Ὑπερ- βορέοις Ἀπόλλωνος δωρηθέντι αὐτῷ ἐποχούμενος ποτα- μούς τε καὶ πελάγη καὶ τὰ ἄβατα διέβαινεν, ἀεροβατῶν τρόπον τινά, ὅπερ ὑπενόησαν καὶ Πυθαγόραν τινὲς πεπον- θέναι τότε, ἡνίκα καὶ ἐν Μεταποντίῳ καὶ ἐν Ταυρομενίῳ τοῖς ἑκατέρωθι ἑταίροις ὡμίλησε τῇ αὐτῇ ἡμέρᾳ.
- "... and instead of divining by the entrails of beasts, he [Pythagoras] revealed to him the art of prognosticating by numbers conceiving this to be a method purer, more divine and more kindred to the celestial numbers of the Gods." from Iamblichus' Vita Pythagorica (trans. K. S. Guthrie).
- Schmitz, Leonhard (1867). "Abaris". In Smith, William. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology 1. p. 1.
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Abaris.|
- Plato's Charmides in the most famous passage concerning Ἄβαρις Ὑπερβόρειος.
- History of Herodotus, in the classic translation of George Rawlinson (ed. and tr., vol. 3, Book 4, Chapters 2-36, 46-82. New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1885.)
- Plato, Platonis Opera, ed. John Burnet. Oxford University Press. 1903.
- Entry for Abaris from the Suda, courtesy of the Suda online.
- Ancient Library
- Kingsley, Peter - A Story Waiting To Pierce You - Mongolia, Tibet And The Destiny Of The Western World, (The Golden Sufi Center, 2010) ISBN 978-1-890350-20-8.
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed. (1870). "article name needed". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.