Adrian Borland

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Adrian Borland
Adrian Borland.jpg
Background information
Birth name Adrian Kelvin Borland
Also known as Joachim Pimento
Born (1957-12-06)6 December 1957
Origin London, England
Died 26 April 1999(1999-04-26) (aged 41)
Genres Post-punk, alternative rock, new wave, indie rock
Occupation(s) Musician
Instruments Guitar, keyboard, vocals
Years active 1976–1999
Labels Red Sun, Play It Again Sam, Resolve, Earth
Associated acts The Outsiders, The Sound, Adrian Borland & the Citizens, The Witch Trials, Second Layer, Honolulu Mountain Daffodils
Website www.brittleheaven.com

Adrian Borland (6 December 1957 – 26 April 1999) was an English singer, songwriter, guitarist and record producer, best known as the lead singer of post-punk band The Sound (1979–87). Following a substantial solo career spanning five albums, he succumbed to the symptoms of schizoid-affective disorder[1] and committed suicide in April 1999.

Early career[edit]

Adrian Kelvin Borland was born in England in 1957, the son of Bob Borland, a physicist at the National Physical Laboratory, and his wife Win, an English teacher.[2] At primary school the young Adrian Borland was already friends with future Sound bassist (and Second Layer collaborator) Graham "Green" Bailey,[3] and would meet Steve Budd, closely involved with his band The Sound in their early years, in his early teens. Budd would later recall, "We met when we were both 14. He was the only other kid I knew with an electric guitar. Even at 14 you could see he was a genius".[4] Borland's first band, the Wimbledon-based punk rock trio The Outsiders, was formed with Borland at its nucleus, manning vocals and guitar. Bob Lawrence was on bass, and Adrian 'Jan' Janes manned the drums. Their debut LP, Calling on Youth, was self-released on their Raw Edge label, and became the first UK self-released punk album[5] and won them their first unfavourable reviews: "apple-cheeked Ade has a complexion that would turn a Devon milkmaid green with envy", reported the NME.[6][7] An EP that November, One To Infinity, was labelled as "tuneless, gormless, gutless" (again by the NME),[8] but was praised elsewhere.[9] It was followed by a second album, Close Up in 1979. This received better (but cautious) reviews from the press.[10][11]

It was after this album that important changes took place that would decide the band's future: Lawrence left to be replaced by Borland's old friend Graham 'Green' Bailey, and Adrian Janes' departure to go to college[12] allowed Geoffrey Cummant-Wood (the band's manager) to suggest 28-year-old Mike Dudley in his stead.[13] The Outsiders trio then became The Sound, a quartet, with the arrival of Bi Marshall (real name Benita Biltoo),[14] an acquaintance of Bailey's and the band from around 1977.[12] The new sound was augmented by her use of the clarinet (later saxophone) and synthesizer.

The Sound: 1979–1988[edit]

Main article: The Sound (band)

Borland became the kernel of The Sound, being the songwriter, main vocalist and guitarist, penning tracks for the early Propaganda sessions and the Jeopardy recordings (the latter to become The Sound's debut release).[15] From this point on he would become critically acclaimed,[16][17][18] if never a household name. The Sound's second album, From The Lion's Mouth, was even more enthusiastically received,[19][20][21][22] selling over 100,000 units worldwide.[23] Borland's personal productivity was enhanced even more with two collaborations that year, one with Jello Biafra in The Witch Trials,[24] and another with Sound bassist Graham Bailey in Second Layer, which spawned the electronic album World of Rubber. The Sound were caught on a downcurve, however, the following year with the release of All Fall Down (1982), an experimental and bitter album that represented the band's refusal to make more commercial music to satisfy their label (Korova, a Warner Bros. subsidiary). Korova responded by dropping them,[25] while the music press rapidly disowned them; a Sounds review called the album "virtually worthless".[26] The Sound never recovered from this setback, although they did release a mini album (Shock of Daylight), a live album (In The Hothouse) and two further albums (Heads and Hearts and Thunder Up) over the next five years. These were all released on small independent labels, and never reversed the band's diminishing profile.

Although it is unclear as to when Borland was diagnosed with his condition, from 1985 onwards the symptoms of his depression became more and more apparent.[27] His problems would manifest themselves in many of the songs on The Sound's final album, Thunder Up, as well as in the schizophrenic layout of the piece; while the initial tracks deal with confronting issues (for example "Acceleration Group", "Barria Alta"), the second half proceeds at an entirely different tangent, becoming either tortuous ("Shot Up And Shut Down"), frenetic ("I Give You Pain") or mournful ("You've Got A Way"). The touring for Thunder Up culminated in disaster for the band when Borland left halfway through a set at Zoetermeer, Netherlands. It would be the last Sound gig.[28] Dudley described the break-up in 2004:

"We had decided the three of us, Colvin, Graham and myself, to tell Adrian that the Sound needed a break and that he should get some rest and some help, and that in the meantime we would go off and look at other things...but when it came down to it I sat there and listened to the others say "Yes, Adrian. No, Adrian" to Adrian, who wanted despite everything to go on, and I just said at that point "I'm leaving the band", my intention being that the band would come to an end there and then, forcing Adrian into the position where he would get some rest, for his sake."[29]

The band continued without Mike Dudley into 1988, but soon collapsed. The Big Takeover lamented that it was "Like an old friend losing a long fight with a disease".[30] Borland would later blame himself for the break-up of The Sound.[23]

After The Sound: 1988–1999[edit]

Early solo career[edit]

While his former bandmates discontinued their musical careers, Borland moved to the Netherlands in 1988 to found yet another band, after initially going there on holiday and to meet his manager (Rob Acda) .[31] Adrian Borland and The Citizens was formed there, taking advantage of the popularity of The Sound on the continent, and the relative inexpense of venues in the Low Countries.[32] Musically, this was a period of unprecedented collaboration for Borland; for instance, he worked (albeit under the pseudonym "Joachim Pimento") with the Honolulu Mountain Daffodils right up until their final release Psychic Hit List Victim in 1991 .[33]

In 1989 Adrian Borland and The Citizens released Alexandria, a huge departure musically from Thunder Up and featuring four backing vocalists, bass, cello, clarinet, drums and kettle drums, piano, saxophone, harmonica, tambourine, viola, violin and guitar. Some continuity was provided by former Sound bandmate Colvin 'Max' Mayers collaborating by reprising his role of keyboardist, while Nick Robbins again engineered and co-produced the album with Borland.[34] The album featured much calmer, lighter tracks than those on Thunder Up, such as "Light The Sky" and "Rogue Beauty". As always, some tracks deal with Borland's own precarious emotional state, such as "No Ethereal" and "Deep Deep Blue". In an interview with Melody Maker the same year, Borland said of the title:

"I think The Sound suffered from this image of being blunt and straightforward and hitting you in the face with what we wanted to say, right from "who

the hell makes those missiles?" So I wanted something more vague, something almost without reason."[35]

The album, however, suffered from poor sales, selling an estimated 10,000 copies on the continent and a mere 1000 in England. Borland attributed this to poor distribution.[23] Although Borland expressed an interest in re-forming his old band, The Sound never re-formed: bassist Graham Bailey moved to the United States in the early 90s; keyboardist Max died on Boxing Day 1993 from an AIDs-related illness; and an undisclosed antagonism had caused an irreparable rift between Borland and drummer Mike Dudley. Speaking of a possible reformation in 1992, Borland said:

"it's my fault 'cos I started this rumour at an Iggy or Kraftwerk gig earlier this year, it's definitely not happening, for a start the person who probably won't do it is the drummer. But even Graham & Max have gone off the idea now. Graham & I are going to do something in the

future, but we're so busy you know? When I'm not busy he's busy, we never find the right moment."[23]

1992 saw the release of Brittle Heaven, which would later lend its name to the (now official) Adrian Borland website. With a menagerie of 14 songs with little difference in style to those of his previous release, the real difference now lay in the composition of the Citizens, which was by now almost exclusively Dutch. Don Victor now co-produced with Borland.[36] The album benefits from lavish investment in production, although this puts it in a similar position to The Sound's Heads and Hearts album in that it is much more polished than Borland's other solo material. Critical reception ranged from the noncomittal to welcoming; Allmusic described it as 'one hour of finely woven tapestry, of gorgeous music', albeit 'Not quite as good as 1989's Alexandria', handing it three stars out of five,[37] while David Cavanagh gave it four, praising the atmosphere of 'a strange, dizzy optimism' pervading the album.[38] As one critic argued: '[Borland's] reflective writing remains as good as ever',[39] and The Big Takeover went further, proclaiming it 'inspired'.[40]

With some critical endorsement Borland continued to work on new material throughout the year. At some point in 1992 he travelled to Amsterdam to record a session with Victor Heeremans, re-recorded and released many years later as the posthumous The Amsterdam Tapes album.[41] Recorded in a crossover point in his career, it represents a shift in both musical and mental directions: while tracks like "Ordinary Angel" show some continuity with the tone of Brittle Heaven, the forcefulness of tracks such as "Fast Blue World", "Darkest Heart" and "Via Satellite" clearly preclude Borland's later, harder style as seen on 5:00AM and Harmony and Destruction. On the other hand, the acoustic-based fragility of tracks such as "Happen" and "White Room" represents a more immediate turn to lighter, less ambitious music -the latter would be re-recorded to feature on the 1994 album Beautiful Ammunition.

Around this time also Borland began working on music production; he produced albums by Felt, Into Paradise and Waiting Sound. [23]

Mid-nineties[edit]

In 1994 Borland returned to the UK to record his third album, Beautiful Ammunition, at the Acton Survival Studios on Resolve Records.[42] Whether because of meagre investment or because of his desire to explore a more acoustic sound, the new album displayed a simpler format, largely devoid of any discernible concept: "Beautiful Ammunition" is very simply put together, only acoustic guitar, synthesiser and a few drum machines. Everything is very basic, which I like", Borland said later.[43] One notable change from Brittle Heaven is presence of dark, introspective songs, particularly "Lonely Late Nighter" and "White Room", emphasised somewhat by the empty, lonely musical framework. This is not to say, however, that more confident tracks are banished from the album: "Reunited States of Love" and "Someone Will Love You Today" are perfect examples of this, and yet still exemplify in their tentativeness a decisive split from Brittle Heaven-era songs. Critical reception was as muted as always, and mixed where evident; Big Takeover complained that it was 'too light and airy', but vaguely appraised the work as 'finely honed and pleasant'.[44]

The following year, 1995, was to be an important year for Borland; not only was the album Cinematic written and released, but his work with Carlo van Putten, Claudia Uman, Florian Brattman and David Maria Gramse in The White Rose Transmission came to fruition, with the side-project's self-titled debut appearing that year. They would continue to perform intermittently throughout the 1990s, Borland being a major contributor.[45]

Cinematic was a stablemate of Beautiful Ammunition in that it was also created in the Survival Studios and under the Resolve label,[46] yet demonstrated a further evolution in Borland's musical career. Despite being in a similar situation as regards funding, Cinematic benefited from much better, integrated production as well as punchy tracks such as "Bright White Light". With the psychological opener "Dreamfuel" a dream-like atmosphere pervaded the album, establishing itself in indolent, moody tracks like "Cinematic" and "When Can I Be Me?". It was, overall, a more coherent attempt than its predecessor, but – predictably – did not win over the public. Critical reception, however, was even more welcoming. With an Allmusic.com ranking of 4 stars the album was lauded:

"Generally quieter but no less intense than much of his '80s work, Cinematic lives up to its name more than once, with mysterious atmospheres matched by often understated but still sharply realized songs and lyrics."[47]

Simon Heavisides stated: 'Isn't it great when your old favourites don't let you down?...[it] leaves you with the feeling at the end that you want to hear the whole damn thing over again."[48] Mitch Myers wrote in 1997: 'Everybody is a star, but Borland's cinematic life is well worth watching.'[49] Glenn McDonald, however, offered up a less enthusiastic summation: 'The music had an impressive sweep to it, but the production seemed to me to emphasise the mechanical repetitiveness of the arrangements'.[50] The album also lent its name to Cinematic Overview the following year, a compilation album of Borland's work stretching all the way back to the mid seventies.

Also in 1996 the newly formed Renascent Records label reissued Sound records Heads and Hearts (with Shock of Daylight) [51] and In The Hothouse,[52] complete with new packaging, and liner notes by Borland himself.

Later years[edit]

Borland's last release during his lifetime was the album 5:00AM. A switch to Earth Records and a slight change of crew – Tim Smith of Cardiacs now co-produced with Borland[53] [54] – were the only ostensible differences between the new work and Cinematic. However, the money invested in the album allowed for much better production, a direct result of which was the recording and inclusion of "Baby Moon", a song which Borland had held onto since 1993 but did not want to waste 'on a lo-fi production' .[55] The songs are generally punchier and more radio-friendly, such as opener "Stray Bullets", "City Speed" and "Redemption's Knees", but containing powerful, dark, indolent tracks which, at this point, Borland had made his solo trademark: "Vampiric" is arguably the best example of this in all of his discography. The album is also representative of earlier work in that it does not fail to neglect his mental state, dealing with it in an optimistic, confrontational fashion in "Over The Under": 'Under this roof, under the sky/I want to live, at least I'm going to try/But I'm over the under now'.[56] That song would prove to be Borland's last single release. The critical reception was, perhaps, the best of any in his lifetime. Glenn McDonald produced the following glowing review:

"5:00am turns out to sound exactly the way I wanted Cinematic to. Borland's voice, when he sings like he means it, is a glorious amalgam of

Burgess, Ian McNabb, Ian McCulloch, Mike Peters, Jim Kerr and Then Jerico's Mark Shaw, the breathy intimacy that for me misfired on Cinematic here filling, elegantly, the roll that hoarse fervor played in his singing with the Sound." [57]

Allmusic.com list the album at 3 stars, but give no explanation.[58] Borland himself was excited by 5:00AM, and was keen to draw lines between it and his most successful period: '"5:00 A.M" takes up, where "Thunder Up" – which was the last Sound album – left off...It's still the same person, who writes the songs, only a little bit less in love with himself and more worldview orientated.".[59]

Before attending to what would become his last solo recordings, Borland wrote twelve of the fourteen tracks on The White Rose Transmission's second release, 500 Miles of Desert, recording them with the band between November 1998 and January 1999 and producing the album himself. [60] Borland was proud of the work, and said so in his last public writing, dated 18 March 1999:

"Everybody involved worked hard but enjoyed themselves immensely and the end result is better than any of us expected. It's hard to be objective

but I' II just say the final mastered slice of silver has rarely left my CD player."[61]

Death[edit]

By 1999 Borland had lived with severe depression for about 14 years.[62] He had still been denied commercial success or widespread popularity outside of continental Europe, and he had tried to commit suicide at least three times, the third (according to his mother Win Borland) when he jumped in front of a car. He had also developed a drinking problem.[63]

His plans for that year were staggering. Not content with merely anticipating the release of 700 Miles of Desert he expressed the intention to record a sixth solo album with Heads and Hearts producer Wally Brill, a tour of Europe that June to promote the WRT album, a further tour later in the year to promote the new solo release, and 'a 12 song acoustic record with Wally Brill using percussion, trumpet, violin, viola and atmospheric electric guitar' for 2000.[64] Meanwhile the remastering of several The Sound recordings, created at the very start of their career in 1976/77, was underway by Wally Brill. The finished product, Propaganda, was released by Renascent and featured linernotes by Borland, like all previous releases .[65] It would be officially released on 26 April – the very day Borland would commit suicide.[66] Of the plans drawn up by Borland over the winter, only his solo album was undertaken. It was recorded at The Premises, London over a number of months, although Borland himself recorded guide vocals and guitar in the space of about a fortnight.[67] After this point his disposition changed. In a letter he wrote to his parents shortly before his death he expressed fear at being sectioned in Springfield mental hospital .[68] 'He was returning home distraught and anxious...he had ignored the medical advice to pace himself', his mother, Win Borland, wrote.[69] At evidence given at Westminster Coroner's Court it was revealed that he had visited an ex-girlfriend in the days before his death and that his condition had worsened thereafter. The Wimbledon Guardian reported:

"She said: "His thoughts were coming out loud and at one point he said there's always the railway line". She called 999 but by the time police arrived he had disappeared and was reported as a high risk missing person.

That night Mr Borland turned up at Kennington Police Station claiming he was being chased. Later he rang his mother to say he was in a curry house in Kennington. She alerted police and following a series of phone calls and hold-ups he was eventually dropped off at his mother's home at around 3.15 am by officers who described his state of mind as "lucid"." [68]

The night of the 25th Borland slipped away to Wimbledon Station. In the early hours of the 26th horrified commuters watched as Borland committed suicide by throwing himself under a train. He was 41 years of age,[2] and was interred at the Merton & Sutton Joint Cemetery, London. In an account given by drummer Mike Dudley his funeral was attended by his parents, Bob Lawrence and Adrian Janes of The Outsiders, original Sound keyboardist Bi Marshall, early Sound manager Steve Budd and Wally Brill, co-producer of Heads and Hearts and Harmony and Destruction, among a multitude of others.[70]

Legacy[edit]

Although 700 Miles of Desert was released to minimal critical acclaim (but with three stars on Allmusic.com[71] and four stars on eMusic.com[72]) Borland's work has enjoyed an appreciative critical reception and a lasting fanbase, with sites such as brittleheaven.com and renascent.co.uk providing an online outlet for information and sales. In the Millennium a book of anecdotes written by his friends and colleagues was compiled and published, entitled "Book of Happy Memories,[73] after the Brittle Heaven song "Box of Happy Memories". 2001 saw in a tribute album, titled In Passing – A Tribute To Adrian Borland and The Sound ,[74] as well as Renascent reissues of Sound albums Jeopardy, From The Lion's Mouth and All Fall Down . 2002 saw the release of Harmony & Destruction, the remnants of his sixth solo album painstakingly salvaged by Pat Rowles (No Corridor) and audio engineer Pete Barraclough (The Lucy Show, Archive) from the recordings made by Wally Brill at the Premises and four-track demos recorded by Rowels. The BBC recordings of Sound sessions from the 1980s were released with linernotes by Mike Dudley in 2004.[75] 2006 saw The Amsterdam Tapes,[76] a demo album from 1992 that was rejected by his label also remastered and rerecorded by his friends; a band of them grouped together later that year under the moniker 'The Sound of Adrian Borland' to promote it. That same year five live albums, collectively known as The Dutch Radio Recordings, were released by Renascent. These garnered overwhelmingly positive reviews[77] .[78] His collaborative project with Graham Bailey in Second Layer was also resurrected in 2009 by Red Sun Records; their 1981 album World of Rubber was remastered and expanded[79] and received fan support.[80]

Musical style[edit]

Influences[edit]

Borland's initial influences can be traced through his work with The Outsiders into punk bands of the 70s, such as the Sex Pistols. However, it is clear that he had a broader appreciation for other forms of rock parallel to this; his admiration for The Stooges and Iggy Pop was reaffirmed on several occasions[81] .[82] Other influences included The Velvet Underground,[83] Lou Reed,[84] Jim Morrison and Joy Division[85] and David Bowie.[86] In terms of admiration for contemporaries, mid-show interview in 1984, he cited New Order, Soft Cell and Eurythmics .[87] His favourite bands from the eighties were The Waterboys and Talk Talk.[81] He also lauded Ride in the early 90s.[88]

Popular themes[edit]

Borland's earliest lyrics with The Sound showed a tendency toward introspection, even before their music was really influenced by Joy Division .[89] The song "Words Fail Me", was the earliest clear example of this. Many songs simply portray general themes of urban squalor, and political lyrics such as "Cost of Living", "Music Business" and the track "Missiles", which would reach infamy when included on their debut release, Jeopardy. The songs on Jeopardy would largely reflect inward tensions rather than political ones: a curious compromise is reached on "Unwritten Law", an attack on religious dogma surrounding suicide: 'A hand is a hand/A knife is a knife/Blood is blood/And life is life'. From The Lion's Mouth would also contain another reference to religion with "Judgement". Political songs would be largely absent from most further releases; only "Golden Soldiers" ("And I will drink to those who sacrifice and die for me/So I could be so golden") and "Shot Up And Shot Down" ("Most of England is sleeping in the sun/But not everyone") suggest political topics. In his solo work there are more stark examples, such as "Beneath The Big Wheel" and "The Other Side of The World" on Alexandria and the quasi-religious song "Station of The Cross" on Beautiful Ammunition. As Borland's condition got worse in the latter half on the 90s political themes were dropped as introspective ones once more took precedent.

While Borland denied that music helped him (he claimed it "doesn't make any difference" in an interview in 1992 [23] ), after his death his mother wrote that they were at least a cathartic form of therapy and "helped him to come to terms with his problems" .[90] Thus it is that we can frequently infer from the body of work he left what his state of mind may have been at various stages of his life. The Jeopardy opener "I Can't Escape Myself" would project Borland's dissatisfaction with himself, and serves as an early example of his more depressive lyrics. "Fatal Flaw", from the generally more confident album From The Lion's Mouth explores mental weakness, a theme repeated more frequently on All Fall Down in the schizophrenic "Party of The Mind" and "As Feeling Dies"; on Heads and Hearts the crazed "Whirlpool" and "Burning Part of Me"; on "Thunder Up" the whole second half of the album. In his solo career songs such as "Deep Deep Blue", "Lonely Late Nighter" and "Stranger in the Soul" parallel Borland's suffering with his condition – by "Harmony & Destruction" it is merely easier to pick out upbeat songs from the multitude of depressed ones.

"Night Versus Day", a Jeopardy song that had also been part of the Propaganda sessions, is an example of Borland's fascination with dichotomy and the themes of light and dark, which were usually used as a metaphor for the polarising effects of his condition. "New Dark Age" and "Winter" both link the night with fear or slowness. The most obvious Sound song with this idea is "You've Got A Way", the closing track on Thunder Up: "You've got a way/To shoot my night right through with the light of day". It is noteworthy that Borland's first solo single was "Light The Sky", the lyrics of which ae echoed in "Shadow of Your Grace": "You lit up my life and work/It was falling into place". The dichotomy is reversed on the 5:00am track Vampiric: "Before the dawn draws its first breath/Before the Sun destroys what's left/Of us". The album title should also be noted for being the time that dawn usually rises around the equinox. The theme of night and day is brought in as a central concept on the album Harmony & Destruction: the bright opener is "Solar", for instance, while "Startime" and "Heart Goes Down Like The Sun" are dark-named songs about depression. It may be significant that in "Last Train Out of Shatterville", which may be an act of suicide ideation, describes a train pulling out "in the cold morning light", and describes a previous suicide attempt as happening "last dawn as you slipped from curb to bonnet". The final track "Living on the Edge of God" contains the lyric "Strip me down, expose the man/Not a pretty sight in the morning light".

Trivia[edit]

  • Once claimed his favourite song of all time was The Waterboys' "The Whole of the Moon".[91]
  • The B-movie Psychomania from 1971 is said to have been a favourite of his.
  • Once stated that The Smiths 'are shit'.[92]
  • During his time with The Outsiders he played on stage with Iggy Pop.[5][23]
  • Mark Burgess' song "Adrian Be" is dedicated to him.
  • To commemorate his death ten years on, the Facebook group for Adrian Borland organised an 'event', and wrote condolences.[93] In addition, members created an unofficial tribute album.[94]
  • Played guitar left-handed.

Discography[edit]

The Outsiders albums[edit]

  • Calling on Youth (1977) Raw Edge
  • Close Up (1978) Raw Edge

Second Layer albums[edit]

The Sound albums[edit]

Solo albums[edit]

White Rose Transmission albums[edit]

Compilations[edit]

  • Counting the Days (1986) Statik
  • Second Layer (1987) LD Records
  • Vital Years (1993) Gift of Life
  • Cinematic Overview (1995) Setanta
  • BBC Recordings (2004) Renascent
  • The Dutch Radio Recordings, vol 1–5 (2006) Renascent

Singles and EPs[edit]

  • One to Infinity 7" EP (1977) Raw Edge
  • Physical World 7" EP (1979) Tortch
  • Flesh as Property EP (1979) Tortch
  • State of Emergency EP (1980) Tortch
  • "Heyday" Single (1980) Korova
  • Live Instinct Maxi (1981) WEA Records BV
  • "Sense of Purpose" Single (1981) Korova
  • "Hot House" Single (1982) Korova
  • "Party of the Mind" Single (1982) WEA Records BV
  • "Mining dor Heart" Flexi (1983) Vinyl Magazine
  • "Counting the Days" Single (1984) Statik
  • "Golden Soldiers" Single (1984) Victoria
  • Shock of Daylight Mini-album (1984) Statik
  • "Temperature Drop" Single (1985) Statik
  • "Under You" Single (1985) Statik
  • "Hand of Love" Single (1987) PIAS
  • "Iron Years" Single (1987) PIAS
  • Light the Sky (1989) PIAS
  • Beneath the Big Wheel (1989) PIAS
  • All the Words (1992) PIAS
  • Over the Under (1997) Earth

References[edit]

  1. ^ Wimbledon Guardian 15-7-1999[dead link]
  2. ^ a b Morden & Mitcham Independent 15-7-1999
  3. ^ Graham Bailey interview, 17/7/00
  4. ^ Steve Budd interview 9/8/00
  5. ^ a b The Outsiders, entry in 77: The Year of Punk and New Wave by Henrik Bech Poulsen, 2008. Cited at BrittleHeaven.com, fan site for Adrian Borland.
  6. ^ NME, October 1977
  7. ^ Calling On Youth review Sounds, June 1977
  8. ^ One To Infinity review, NME 26-11-1977
  9. ^ The Outsiders review, Mick Mercer, 1978
  10. ^ Close Up review, NME 7.4.1979
  11. ^ Close Up review, Record Mirror 12.04.1979
  12. ^ a b Bi Marshall interview, 2003
  13. ^ Mike Dudley interview with Penny Black, 2004
  14. ^ Adrian Borland interview with Simon Heavisides
  15. ^ Discogs.com entry for Jeopardy
  16. ^ Jeopardy review, Sounds 1.11.1980
  17. ^ Jeopardy review, NME 13.11.1980
  18. ^ Jeopardy review, Melody Maker 6.11.1980
  19. ^ From The Lion's Mouth review, Record Mirror 21.10.1981
  20. ^ From The Lion's Mouth review, Melody Maker 24.10.1981
  21. ^ From The Lion's Mouth review, Whisperin' & Hollerin', 2001
  22. ^ From The Lion's Mouth review, Uncut 2004
  23. ^ a b c d e f g Adrian Borland interview with Simon Heavisides, 1992
  24. ^ Discogs entry for The Witch Trials
  25. ^ The Sound review, Soundmaker 5.3.1983
  26. ^ All Fall Down review, Sounds 30.10.1982
  27. ^ Mike Dudley interview with PennyBlack, 2004
  28. ^ Mike Dudley interview 2000, Renascent
  29. ^ Mike Dudley interview with PennyBlack, 2004
  30. ^ The Big Takeover, June 1988
  31. ^ Adrian Borland interview with KRO radio, 1992
  32. ^ Adrian Borland interview with Simon Heavisides 1992
  33. ^ "Psychic Hit List Victim" entry, Artist Direct
  34. ^ Discogs entry for Alexandria
  35. ^ Adrian Borland interview with Chris Roberts, 1989
  36. ^ Discogs.com entry for Brittle Heaven
  37. ^ Rabid, Jack. Review of Brittle Heaven at AllMusic. Retrieved 10 May 2012.
  38. ^ Brittle Heaven review – David Cavanagh, 1992
  39. ^ Brittle Heaven review – Dave Morrison, 1992
  40. ^ Brittle Heaven review – Jack Rabid, 1994
  41. ^ Discogs page, The Amsterdam Tapes
  42. ^ Discogs.com entry for Beautiful Ammunition
  43. ^ Adrian Borland interview with Limit #20, 1998
  44. ^ Beautiful Ammunition review – Big Takeover, 1994
  45. ^ Kellman, Andy. Biography of White Rose Transmission at AllMusic. Retrieved 10 May 2012.
  46. ^ Discog.com Cinematic entry
  47. ^ Raggett, Ned. Review of Cinematic at AllMusic. Retrieved 10 May 2012.
  48. ^ Cinematic review -Simon Heavisides, 1996
  49. ^ Cinematic review – Mitch Myers, 1997
  50. ^ 5:00AM review – Glenn McDonald, 1997
  51. ^ Discog.com entry for Shock of Daylight & Heads And Hearts
  52. ^ Discogs.com entry for In The Hothouse
  53. ^ Adrian Borland interview with Limit #20, 1998
  54. ^ Discogs.com entry for 5:00AM
  55. ^ Adrian Borland interview with Limit #20, 1998
  56. ^ "Over The Under" chorus
  57. ^ 5:00AM review – Glenn McDonald, 1997
  58. ^ 5:00 AM at AllMusic. Retrieved 10 May 2012.
  59. ^ Adrian Borland interview with Limit #20
  60. ^ Discogs.com entry for 700 Miles of Desert
  61. ^ Missive from Adrian Borland, 18 March 1999
  62. ^ Mike Dudley interview with Pennyblack, 2004
  63. ^ Linernotes for Harmony & Destruction by Win Borland
  64. ^ Missive from Adrian Borland, 18 March 1999
  65. ^ Linernotes for Propaganda written by Adrian Borland, 1999
  66. ^ Discogs.com entry for Propaganda
  67. ^ Linernotes for Harmony & Destruction by Pat Rowles, 2001
  68. ^ a b Wimbledon Guardian 15-7-1999
  69. ^ Linernotes for Harmony & Destruction by Win Borland
  70. ^ 'For Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow', Mike Dudley, 2002
  71. ^ 700 Miles of Desert at AllMusic. Retrieved 10 May 2012.
  72. ^ "700 miles of desert". eMusic. 
  73. ^ Book of Happy Memories overview
  74. ^ amazon.com entry for the tribute album
  75. ^ Discog.com entry for The BBC Recordings
  76. ^ Discogs entry for The Amsterdam Tapes
  77. ^ Dutch Radio Recordings review – CMU Beats 03.07.06
  78. ^ Dutch Radio Recordings review -GothTronic.com 25.07.06
  79. ^ Red Sun Records update on the World of Rubber reissue
  80. ^ World of Rubber review
  81. ^ a b Adrian Borland Interview with Melody Maker, 1989
  82. ^ Adrian Borland interview with Vara Radio, 1989
  83. ^ Adrian Borland interview with Melody Maker
  84. ^ Adrian Borland interview with KRO radio, 1992
  85. ^ Adrian Borland interview with Vara Radio, 1989
  86. ^ Adriand Borland interview with Simon Heavisides, 1992
  87. ^ YouTube.com: "The Sound – Mid-show interview (Live 1984) – Adrian Borland" Video on YouTube
  88. ^ Adrian Borland interview with Simon Heavisides
  89. ^ Linernotes for Propaganda, Adrian Borland 1999
  90. ^ Linernotes for Harmony & Destruction, Win Borland 2002
  91. ^ Adrian Borland interview, 1989
  92. ^ YouTube.com: 'The Sound – Mid-show interview (Live 1984) – Adrian Borland' Video on YouTube
  93. ^ Facebook event: Adrian Borland: The World Remembers
  94. ^ Adrian Borland tribute album webpage

External links[edit]