|Native name||Агатангел Кримський|
|Born||15 January [O.S. 3 January] 1871
Volodymyr-Volynskyi, Russian Empire
|Died||January 25, 1942
Kostanay, Kazakh SSR, USSR
|Citizenship||Russian Empire → Ukraine → USSR|
|Alma mater||Lazarev Institute, Moscow University|
Ahatanhel Yukhymovych Krymsky (Ukrainian: Агатангел Юхимович Кримський, Russian: Агафангел Ефимович Крымский; 15 January [O.S. 3 January] 1871 – 25 January 1942) was an Ukrainian Orientalist, linguist and polyglot (knowing up to 35 languages), literary scholar, folklorist, writer, and translator. He was one of the founders of the All-Ukrainian Academy of Sciences (VUAN) in 1918 and a full member of it and of the Shevchenko Scientific Society from 1903.
Ahatanhel Krymsky was born in Volodymyr-Volynskyi to a Lipka Tatar father and a Polish-Lithuanian mother. His family moved soon to Zvenyhorodka in Central Ukraine. His surname Krymsky (Ukrainian: Кримський) means Crimean and was received by his ancestor of 17th century who was a Crimean Tatar mullah from Bakhchysaray. Although Ahatanhel had no Ukrainian origin he described himself as "Ukrainophile".
Ahatanhel Krymsky graduated from Galagan College in Kiev (1889), from the Lazarev Institute of Oriental Languages in Moscow (1891), and subsequently from Moscow University (1896). After the graduation, he worked in the Middle East between 1896 and 1898, and subsequently returned to Moscow and became a lecturer at the Lazarev Institute (from 1900, a professor). Krymsky taught Arabic literature and Oriental history. In Moscow, he was active in the Ukrainian pro-independence movement and was a member of Moscow's Ukrainian Hromada.
He edited 20 of the 25 volumes of Записки Історично-філологічного відділу of the Academy (1920–29) and was a professor at Kyiv University as well as the vice-president of the Ukrainian Science Society in Kyiv (from 1918). Although Krymsky survived the Great Purge of the 1930s, he was removed from scholarly and pedagogical activity for about 10 years. In 1939 he was rehabilitated, but in July 1941 after German-Soviet war began NKVD arrested him as "especially unreliable", and deported to Kostanay in Kazakhstan where he died in age of 71. He was finally rehabilitated in 1957.
Krymsky was an expert in up to 34 languages (by some sources he had at least average knowledge in 56 languages). Krymsky contributed few hundred entries to the Brockhaus and Efron and Granat Russian encyclopedias and wrote many other works on Arabic, Turkish, Turkic, Crimean Tatar, and Iranian history and literature, some of which were pioneering textbooks in Russian Oriental studies.
In particular he wrote, in Russian, histories of Islam (1904–12); of the Arabs, Turkey, Persia (and their literatures), Dervish theosophy, a study of the Semitic languages and peoples. In 1920s and 1930s he also wrote in Ukrainian histories of Turkey and Persia (and their literatures); monographs on Hafiz and his songs and on the Turkic peoples, their languages, and literatures; edited a collection of articles on the Crimean Tatars; and wrote a study of Arab higher education and the Arabian Academy of Sciences (with O. Boholiubsky). During the last years of his life he wrote a six-volume history of the Khazars which was never published.
Krymsky researched on the history of the Ukrainian language. As he was an opponent of Aleksei Sobolevsky's claim that the language of the ancient Kyivan Rus’ was more Russian, than Ukrainian, he wrote three polemical studies in 1904-07 on this question, later his views on the language of Kyivan Rus’ were summarized in Українська мова, звідкіля вона взялася і як розвивалася (The Ukrainian Language: Whence It Came and How It Developed). Krymsky researched Ukrainian dialects. He was actively involved in the work of standardizing the vocabulary and orthography of literary Ukrainian in 1920s. In this activity he rejected the Galician orthographic tradition. He was the editor in first two vols of the four-volume Russian-Ukrainian dictionary (1924–33) and of the Russian-Ukrainian dictionary of legal language (1926).
Krymsky wrote three books of lyrical poetry and some novellas. He translated many Arabic and Persian literary works into Ukrainian, including The Rubáiyát of Omar Khayyam, A Thousand and One Nights, and Hafez's songs. He also translated the poetry of European writers such as Heinrich Heine, Byron, Sappho, Friedrich Rückert. He published articles and reviews on Ukrainian writers, their works and on Ukrainian theater.
As an ethnographer, Krymsky was an adherent of migration theory. He translated into Ukrainian and annotated W.A. Clouston's Popular Tales and Fictions (1896) and also wrote a lot of Orientalist works and articles about Ukrainian ethnographers.
- Сходознавець Агатангел Кримський знав до сотні мов(Ukrainian)
- Енциклопедія історії України: Т. 5: Кон - Кю / Редкол.: В. А. Смолій (голова) та ін. НАН України. Інститут історії України. - К.: В-во «Наукова думка», 2008. - 568 с.: іл.(Ukrainian)
- Krymsky, Ahatanhel. Internet Encyclopedia of Ukraine
- Видатний орієнталіст України — Агатангел Кримський(Ukrainian)
- Гурницький, К. Кримський як історик (Київ, 1971)
- Скокан, К.; Деркач, Н.; Ісаєва, Н,; Мартиненко, Г. Агатангел Кримський: Бібліографічний покажчик (1889–1971) (Київ, 1972)
- Білодід, І. Агатангел Кримський — україніст та орієнталіст (Київ, 1974)
- Павличко, Соломея. Націоналізм, сексуальність, орієнталізм: Складний світ Агатангела Кримського (Київ, 2000)
- Babyshkin, O. Ahatanhel Kryms’kyi: Literaturnyi portret (Kyiv 1967)
- Krymsky's works in E-library "Chtyvo"