|Directed by||Oliver Stone|
|Produced by||Thomas Schühly
|Written by||Oliver Stone
|Editing by||Thomas J. Nordberg
France 3 Cinéma
Egmond Film & Television
IMF Internationale Medien und Film GmbH & Co. 3 Produktions KG
|Distributed by||Warner Bros. Pictures
Constantin Film (Germany)
Alexander is a 2004 epic historical drama film based on the life of Alexander the Great. It was directed by Oliver Stone, with Colin Farrell in the title role. The film was an original screenplay based in part on the book Alexander the Great, written in the 1970s by the University of Oxford historian Robin Lane Fox.
The film received generally negative reviews upon its release and failed in the American box office. It grossed only US$34 million domestically, while costing $155 million to produce. However, it did better internationally in recovering its losses, grossing a total of $132 million in overseas revenue.
Four versions of the film exist, the initial theatrical cut and three home video director's cuts: the "Director's Cut" in 2005, the "Final Cut" in 2007 and the forthcoming "Ultimate Cut" in 2014. The two earlier DVD versions of Alexander ("director's cut" version and the theatrical version) sold over 3.5 million copies in the United States. Oliver Stone's third version, Alexander Revisited: The Final Cut (2007) has sold close to one million copies and became one of the highest-selling catalog items from Warner Bros.
- 1 Plot
- 2 Cast
- 3 Production
- 4 Reception
- 5 Versions
- 6 Soundtrack
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
The film is based on the life of Alexander the Great, King of Macedonia, who conquered Asia Minor, Egypt, Persia and part of ancient India. Shown are some of the key moments of Alexander's youth, his invasion of the mighty Persian Empire and his death. It also outlines his early life, including his difficult relationship with his father Philip II of Macedonia, his strained feeling towards his mother Olympias, the unification of the Greek city-states and the two Greek Kingdoms (Macedonia and Epirus) under the Hellenic League, and the conquest of the Persian Empire in 331 BC. It also details his plans to reform his empire and the attempts he made to reach the end of the then known world.
The story begins 40 years after 323 BC, around 283 BC, with Ptolemy I Soter, who narrates throughout the film. We see Alexander's daily life and the strained relationship between his parents. Alexander grows up with his mother Olympias and his tutor Aristotle, where he finds interest in love, honour, music, exploration, poetry and military combat. His relationship with his father is destroyed when Philip marries Attalus's niece, Eurydice.
After Philip is assassinated, Alexander becomes king of Macedonia. Ptolemy briefly mentions Alexander's punitive campaign in which he razes Thebes and burns Persepolis, then gives an overview of Alexander's west-Persian campaign, including his declaration as the son of Zeus by the Oracle of Amun at Siwa Oasis, his great battle against the Persian Emperor Darius III in the Battle of Gaugamela and his eight-year campaign across Asia.
Also shown are Alexander's private relationships with his childhood friend Hephaestion and later his wife Roxana. Hephaestion compares Alexander to Achilles, to which Alexander replies that, if he is Achilles, Hephaestion must be his Patroclus (Achilles' best friend and his lover). When Hephaestion mentions that Patroclus died first, Alexander pledges that, if Hephaestion should die first, he will follow him into the afterlife. Hephaestion shows extensive jealousy when he sees Alexander with Roxana and deep sadness when he marries her, going so far as to attempt to keep her away from him after Alexander murders Cleitus the Black in India.
After initial objection from his soldiers, Alexander convinces them to join him into his final and bloodiest battle, The Battle of Hydaspes. He is severely injured with an arrow but survives and is celebrated. Later on, Hephaestion succumbs to an unknown illness either by chance or perhaps poison, speculated in the movie to be Typhus carried with him from India. Alexander, full of grief and anger, distances himself from his wife, despite her pregnancy, believing that she has killed Hephaestion. He dies less than three months after Hephaestion, in the same manner, keeping his promise that he would follow him.
- Colin Farrell as Alexander
- Jessie Kamm as child Alexander
- Connor Paolo as young Alexander
- Angelina Jolie as Queen Olympias
- Val Kilmer as King Philip II
- Anthony Hopkins as old Ptolemy
- Elliot Cowan as Ptolemy
- Robert Earley as young Ptolemy
- Jared Leto as Hephaistion
- Patrick Carroll as young Hephaistion
- Rosario Dawson as Roxana
- Christopher Plummer as Aristotle
- David Bedella as scribe
- Fiona O'Shaughnessy as nurse
- Brian Blessed as wrestling trainer
- Gary Stretch as Cleitus
- John Kavanagh as Parmenion
- Nick Dunning as Attalus
- Marie Meyer as Eurydice
- Mick Lally as horse seller
- Joseph Morgan as Philotas
- Ian Beattie as Antigonus
- Jonathan Rhys Meyers as Cassander
- Morgan Christopher Ferris as young Cassander
- Denis Conway as Nearchus
- Peter Williamson as young Nearchus
- Neil Jackson as Perdiccas
- Aleczander Gordon as young Perdiccas
- Garrett Lombard as Leonnatus
- Chris Aberdein as Polyperchon
- Rory McCann as Craterus
- Tim Pigott-Smith as omen reader
- Raz Degan as Darius
- Erol Sander as Persian prince
- Stéphane Ferrara as Bessus, Bactrian commander
- Tadhg Murphy as dying soldier
- Francisco Bosch as Bagoas
- Annelise Hesme as Stateira
- Toby Kebbell as Pausanias of Orestis
- Laird Macintosh as Greek officer
- Féodor Atkine as Roxane's father
- Bin Bunluerit as Indian king
- Jaran Ngramdee as Indian prince
- Brian McGrath as doctor
- Oliver Stone (uncredited) as Macedonian soldier at Zeus Statue
|This section requires expansion. (February 2013)|
- Library of Alexandria: Shepperton Studios, London, England
- Pella/Babylon/Indian palaces and myths cave: Pinewood Studios, London, England
- Alexandria (effect back plate): Malta
- Temple of Pallas Athena, Mieza and Macedonian horse market: Essaouira, Morocco
- Gaugamela: desert near Marrakech, Morocco
- Babylon gates: Marrakech, Morocco
- Bactrian fortress: Lower Atlas Mountains, Morocco
- Hindu Kush (effect back plate): Ouarzazate, Morocco
- Macedonian amphitheater: Morocco
- Hyphasis: Mekong, northeastern Ubon Ratchathani Province, Thailand
- Hydaspes: Central Botanical Garden, Amphoe Mueang, Saraburi Province, Thailand
- Budget: US$ 155 million
- Total domestic grosses: US$ 34,297,191
- Total overseas grosses: US$ 133,001,001
- Total worldwide grosses: US$ 167,298,192
A group of 25 Greek lawyers initially threatened to file a lawsuit against both Stone and the Warner Bros. Film studio for what they claimed was an inaccurate portrayal of history. "We are not saying that we are against gays," said Yannis Varnakos, "but we are saying that the production company should make it clear to the audience that this film is pure fiction and not a true depiction of the life of Alexander". After an advance screening of the film, the lawyers announced that they would not pursue such a course of action.
At the British premiere of the film, Stone blamed "raging fundamentalism in morality" for the film's US box-office failure. He argued that American critics and audiences had blown the issue of Alexander's sexuality out of proportion. The criticism prompted him to make significant changes to the film for its DVD release, whose cover characterizes them as making it "faster paced, more action-packed".
Criticism by historians
Alexander attracted critical scrutiny from historians with regards to factualness. Most academic criticism was concerned with the insufficient adherence to historical details.
The movie is in fact a reduction, rather than a chronicle, of Alexander's life events. It makes use of time compression and it condenses several key events into fewer ones; some actions are attributed to different individuals than those in real history; it generally adheres to milestone facts and phrases, but they are often misplaced in time and in location. The movie additionally skips the initial conquest of Asia Minor, Syria and Egypt in its entirety, and from Macedonia the storyline jumps straight to the battle of Gaugamela which took place 3–4 years after Alexander moved to conquer the Persian Empire. Alexander and his troops defeat the Persian army in a single battle in the film, but Persian historian Farrokh points out that the real Alexander had to fight several fierce battles before he was able to defeat Darius III. Alexander had to fight major battles at Granicus, Halicarnassus, Issus, Tyre, Gaza and Gaugamela, not to count innumerable other battles and sieges along the route between Asia Minor and Egypt, but these battles only receive passing mentions in the film. Farrokh also observed that, in the movie, "Greek forces are typically shown as very organised, disciplined, and so on, and what's very disturbing is, when the so-called Persians are shown confronting the Macedonians, their armies are totally disorganised.
Philotas, one of his generals, and the one tried for treason, is made to look little older than a boy, while he was well in his middle forties when he was executed, having served with Philip long before. The same criticism applies to Darius III himself, who was 57 or 58 when he died and in the movie is played by a young actor.
As it happens in many "costumed" movies, unfortunately too few extras wear beards and heavy hairdos as it was normal in the past, as shaving was difficult, painful and uncommon for men well until after the Renaissance, and only people of high rank had the money and the time to get shaven and groomed by barbers every few days, let alone in the middle of a war campaign in the desert. As far as hairdos, only slaves, thieves and prisoners were shorn, along with those who had lice. Most of Alexander's common troops are instead shown clean shaved, short haired and well-groomed.
Other major objections came from Iranian historians, who were upset by the film's renderings of Persians and Macedonians alike. Objections were also raised by Pakistani historians. The final battle depicted in the film, heavily dramatised and altered from history, was the Battle of the Hydaspes on the River Jhelum in ancient India. Alexander was not (contrary to what the film depicts) severely injured by an arrow from Indian ruler Porus during this battle. This only occurred during a siege later that year against the Malli tribes in Punjab. Hydaspes was not fought in a forest on a sunny day, but on a muddy plain on a night with torrential rains. The centre of the Macedonian line was never surrounded by any accounts, though the infantry did suffer many casualties. The film has also been criticised for omitting a famous story about Alexander's conversation with King Porus. When Alexander won the battle, Porus was captured and presented to him. "Tell me", said Alexander, "what do you wish that I should do with you?" Porus replied, "Treat me, O Alexander, like a king ought." However, a similar scene exists in the film regarding the Princess of Babylon.
Oliver Stone has, in his various commentaries in the film's DVD, defended many of the most glaring historical issues by claiming that he had no time or resources to portray accurately a multitude of battles at the expense of storytelling. He goes into great detail explaining how he merged all the major aspects of the Battle of the Granicus and the Battle of Issus into the Battle of Gaugamela, as well as heavily simplifying the Battle of Hydaspes into a straightforward clash, while merging the near-death of Alexander from the siege of Malli.
Criticism by film critics
The film received mostly negative reviews from film critics, with Rotten Tomatoes giving it a 16% rating based on 194 reviews. The consensus states: "Even at nearly three hours long, this ponderous, talky and emotionally distant biopic fails to illuminate Alexander's life."
One of the principal complaints among US film critics was that Alexander resembled less an action-drama film than a history documentary. Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times wrote in his review, "[W]e welcome the scenes of battle, pomp and circumstance because at least for a time we are free of the endless narration of Ptolemy the historian."
Faint praise came from Daily Variety Magazine, published on 21 November 2004, for which Todd McCarthy wrote, "Oliver Stone's Alexander is at best an honorable failure, an intelligent and ambitious picture that crucially lacks dramatic flair and emotional involvement. Dry and academic where Troy (2004) was vulgar and willfully ahistorical" Manohla Dargis wrote in The New York Times that Alexander "brought out the best of the worst in terms of inaccurate storytelling that lacks planning."
On his December 11, 2004 episode of Saturday Night Live, Colin Farrell joked about the failure of Alexander during his monologue saying, "I've been out of the country for 14 months filming Alexander which I think proved to be time well spent."
The film was nominated in six categories at the Golden Raspberry Awards in 2005: Worst Picture, Worst Actor (Colin Farrell), Worst Actress (Angelina Jolie), Worst Director (Oliver Stone), Worst Supporting Actor (Val Kilmer) and Worst Screenplay, thereby becoming the second-most-nominated potential "Razzie" film of 2004; however, it "won" no awards.
This is the film as it was originally released in theaters, with a running time of 175 minutes. It was released on DVD and is also available on Blu-ray in some territories.
Stone's director's cut was re-edited before the DVD release later in 2005. Stone removed seventeen minutes of footage and added nine back. This, then, shortened the running time from 175 minutes to 167. The differences between the director's cut and the theatrical version are as follows:
- Dates in the flashbacks and flashforwards use normal historical figures, such as 323 BC and 356 BC, as opposed to referring to time lapses, like "30 years earlier". In his commentary, Stone explains that, for the theatrical release in the United States, he had to refrain from using regular "BC" dates, since (according to data collected from test screenings) there was a significant number of viewers who did not know that 356 BC represented an earlier historical period than 323 BC.
- Ptolemy's backstory at the beginning is shortened.
- The two flashbacks with the arrival of Eurydice to the court and the wedding feast are shifted into the eastern campaign, enveloping the trial of Philotas and assassination of Parmenion.
- The scene in which Aristotle gives a lesson to the young Alexander and his friends is re-edited and extended by a few seconds.
- Ptolemy's narration leading up to the Battle of Gaugamela gives no reference to the razing of Thebes and burning of Persepolis. He mentions the official Macedonian accusation, that Darius assisted the assassination of Philip – in both versions, it is also mentioned when Alexander rallies the troops – and the proclamation by the Oracle of Amun is moved to a later part of the narrative.
- There is no scene on the night before the Battle of Gaugamela or the omen reader looking into the intestine of the ox-sacrifice before the Battle of Gaugamela.
- In the commentary it is explained that Val Kilmer and other cast members deliberately use an Irish accent as Colin Farrell was unable to lose his, with Irish accents being used as a stand in for a Greek accent.
- Directly after Alexander's mourning the dead after the Battle of Gaugamela, there is an additional flashback in which Philip explains the Titans to the young Alexander.
- In the theatrical version, during Roxana's dance, Perdiccas can be seen breaking up a fight between Hephaestion and Cleitus. This is removed in the director's cut.
- The sex scene between Alexander and Roxana is shortened, and her attempt to kill him after her discovery of his relationship with Hephaestion is cut. More explicit footage of Alexander and Roxana having sex is added.
- When Alexander uncovers the page's plot, the director's cut features a scenelet in which Perdiccas goes to arrest Hermolaus, who falls on his sword with the words "Death to all tyrants".
- There is no narrative explanation by Ptolemy during the trial of Philotas.
- Alexander does not mourn Cleitus.
- The flashback of Alexander questioning Olympias does not appear immediately after the flashback of Philip's assassination; rather, it is moved to follow Alexander's grievous wounds in the Battle of the Hydaspes.
- The scene in which Roxana is prevented from entering Alexander's tent by Hephaestion is also removed. This is the last remnant of a Roxana-Cassander subplot that was filmed but not included.
- Between the scene in which Alexander smashes the "rebellion" within the ranks and the final battle, there is an additional scene in which Alexander reads a letter from Aristotle, who is featured dictating it to an unseen scribe.
- Ptolemy's narration of the march through the Gedrosian desert additionally mentions the helplessness of Alexander watching his broken army die due to natural causes and harsh conditions. He does not mention either Alexander's new marriages in his final years or that the march across the Gedrosian desert was the "worst blunder of his life".
- The scene of the army returning to Babylon, together with that in which Olympias receives the omen of Alexander's death, is shortened.
Alexander Revisited: The Final Unrated Cut
Stone also made an extended version of Alexander. "I'm doing a third version on DVD, not theatrical", he said in an interview with Rope of Silicon. "I'm going to do a Cecil B. DeMille three-hour-45-minute thing; I'm going to go all out, put everything I like in the movie. He [Alexander] was a complicated man, it was a complicated story, and it doesn't hurt to make it longer and let people who loved the film [...] see it more and understand it more."
The extended version of the film was released under the title of Alexander Revisited: The Final Unrated Cut on 27 February 2007. The two-disc set featured a new introduction by Stone. "Over the last two years," he said, "I have been able to sort out some of the unanswered questions about this highly complicated and passionate monarch – questions I failed to answer dramatically enough. This film represents my complete and last version, as it will contain all the essential footage we shot. I don't know how many film-makers have managed to make three versions of the same film, but I have been fortunate to have the opportunity because of the success of video and DVD sales in the world, and I felt, if I didn't do it now, with the energy and memory I still have for the subject, it would never quite be the same again. For me, this is the complete Alexander, the clearest interpretation I can offer."
The film is restructured into two acts with an intermission. Alexander: Revisited takes a more in-depth look at Alexander's life and his relationships with Olympias, Philip, Hephaestion, Roxana and Ptolemy. The film has a running time of three hours and 34 minutes (214 minutes, about 40 minutes longer than the theatrical cut and almost 50 minutes longer than the first director's cut) and is presented in 2.40:1 anamorphic widescreen with English Dolby Digital 5.1 Surround audio. Beyond the new introduction with Stone, there are no other extras on the DVD except for a free coupon to the movie 300. The Blu-ray and HD-DVD releases both feature a variety of special features however, including two audio commentaries and a new featurette.
It is currently the only version of the film widely available on Blu-ray.
In November 2012, Oliver Stone revealed that he was working on a fourth cut of the film, at Warner Bros' request and that this time around he would remove material, as he felt he had added in too much in the "Final Cut". The version, which is 206 minutes long, is set to premiere on July 3, 2013 at the Karlovy Vary International Film Festival and Stone swears that no more versions will follow. In February 2014, Oliver Stone announced on Twitter that 'Alexander the Ultimate Cut (Tenth Anniversary Edition)' will be released in the United States on June 3, 2014. According to Amazon.com, some of its features will include "40-Page Art Book with Concept Drawings, Storyboards and Behind-the-Scenes Photos Collectible Packaging Correspondence Memos Between Oliver Stone and the Cast and Crew New Documentary The Real Alexander and the World He Made The Ultimate Cut Commentary by Oliver Stone Original Theatrical Version and Commentary Sean Stone’s Feature-Length Documentary Fight Against Time: Oliver Stone’s Alexander And much more!"
- Alexander the Great (disambiguation)
- Alexander (video game)
- Ishtar Gate of Babylon, Pergamon Museum, Berlin
- List of historical drama films
- "Boxofficemojo.com". Alexander Box Office Gross. Archived from the original on 15 June 2006. Retrieved 2006.
- Retrieved from Videobusiness.com
- "Words from Oliver Stone: Thank you very... - Alexander: Revisited". Facebook. Retrieved 2013-12-04.
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- Bowles, S., 2004. Alas, fortune did not favor 'Alexander'. USA Today, [internet] 28 November. Available at USAtoday.com, Accessed 5 January 2010. Archived at Webcitation.org
- "Greek lawyers halt Alexander case". BBC News. 3 December 2004. Retrieved 22 August 2010.
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- "Stone says Alexander is too complex for 'conventional minds'" (Friday, 10 December 2004)
- "Alexander (opened 24/11/2004) Oliver Stone's Costly History Lesson" By Cathy Schultz, Ph.D. in Dayton Daily News, 24 November 2004. (Also in Joliet Herald News, 28 November 2004; Bend Bulletin, 28 November 2004; Providence Journal, 26 November 2004.)
- Esfandiari, Golnaz. "World: Oliver Stone's 'Alexander' Stirs Up Controversy". Rferl.org. Retrieved 2013-12-04.
- William J. Duiker (31 December 2012). The Essential World History, 7th ed.. Cengage Learning. pp. 104–. ISBN 978-1-133-60658-1. Source: The Campaign of Alexander by Arrian, translated by Aubrey de Selncourt, Viking Press, 1976
- Alexander at Rotten Tomatoes
- Rogerebert.suntimes.com; Alexander (R)
- By (21 November 2004). "Alexander". Variety.com. Retrieved 22 August 2010.
- "Oliver Stone's Alexander Gets Another DVD Release The final, final cut is now confirmed... By Brad Brevet (Monday, 18 December 2006)
- "Warner Bros. Online: DVD Shop Browsing". Whv.warnerbros.com. Archived from the original on 22 July 2010. Retrieved 22 August 2010.
- "The Digital Fix: Home Cinema – Alexander Revisited: The Final Cut (HD) in September – EXTRAS!!". Homecinema.thedigitalfix.co.uk. 19 August 2007. Archived from the original on 22 July 2010. Retrieved 22 August 2010.
- Hugh Armitage (8 November 2012). "Oliver Stone plans fourth 'Alexander' cut". Digital Spy.
- "Alexander: The Ultimate Cut". Karlovy Vary International Film.
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- R. K. Bosley, "Warrior King", American Cinematographer 85:11, 36–40, 42–43, 45–46, 48–51 (2004); B. Bergery, "Timing Alexander", ibid. 44–45 (2004).
- T. Carver, "Oliver Stone's Alexander: Warner Bros. And Intermedia Films (2004)", Film & History 35:2, 83–84 (2005).
- G. Crowdus, "Dramatizing Issues That Historians Don't Address: An Interview with Oliver Stone", Cineaste 30:2 (Spring 2005), 12–23 (2005).
- D. Fierman, Entertainment Weekly 793 (19 November 2004), 26–32 (2004).
- M. Fleming, "Stone Redraws Battle Plans: Producer Admit 'Alexander' Missteps, but Hope International Release Proves Epically Successful", Variety 397:6 (27 December 2004–2 January 2005), 6 (2005).
- D. Gritten, "Fall Sneaks: Fearsome Phalanx: Executing His Vision Of Grandeur, Oliver Stone Leads A Front Line Of Powder-Keg Actors Across 3 Continents. What Could Go Wrong?", Los Angeles Times 12 September 2004, E21 (2004).
- A. Lane, "The Critics: The Current Cinema: War-Torn: Oliver Stone's 'Alexander'", The New Yorker 80:38 (6 December 2004), 125–127 (2004).
- R. Lane Fox, Alexander the Great (Penguin Books, London, 1973).
- Mendelsohn, Daniel (13 January 2005). "Alexander, the Movie! [Review of Alexander, a film directed by Oliver Stone]". the New York Review of Books 52 (1). ISSN 0028-7504.
- I. Worthington, "Book Review: Europe: Ancient and Medieval: Alexander. Directed by Oliver Stone", The American Historical Review 110:2, 553 (2005).
- Radio Free Europe/Radio liberty,28 January 2005 "World: Oliver Stone's 'Alexander' Stirs Up Controversy" By Golnaz Esfandiari
- Dr. Kaveh Farrokh, The Alexander Movie: How are Iranians and Greeks Portrayed?
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Alexander (film).|
|Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Alexander (film)|
- Official website
- Alexander at the Internet Movie Database
- Alexander at AllMovie
- Alexander at Box Office Mojo
- Alexander at Rotten Tomatoes
- Alexander at Metacritic
- Afterword by Oliver Stone from "Responses to Oliver Stone's Alexander"