Allamanda

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Allamanda
Allamanda cathartica
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Gentianales
Family: Apocynaceae
Genus: Allamanda
L.
Species

See text.

Allamanda is a genus of flowering plants in the dogbane family, Apocynaceae. They are native to the Americas, where they are distributed from Mexico to Argentina. Some species are familiar as ornamental plants cultivated for their large, colorful flowers. Most species produce yellow flowers; A. blanchetii bears pink.[1] The genus name Allamanda honors the Swiss botanist and physician Frédéric-Louis Allamand (1735–1803).[2]

Description[edit]

Plants of the genus are evergreen trees,[2] shrubs, or vines.[3] They contain a white latex. The leaves are opposite or arranged in whorls of up to 5. The blades are generally oval and smooth-edged, and some are leathery or lightly hairy. The inflorescence is a compound cyme. The flower has five lobed sepals and a bell- or funnel-shaped corolla of five petals, yellow in most species. The fruit is a schizocarp containing two to four seeds.[2]


Chemistry and medicine[edit]

Allamanda cathartica

In lab analyses Allamanda species have yielded several chemical compounds, including iridoid lactones such as allamandin, plumericin, and plumierides. Plumericin particularly was demonstrated to be a highly potent NF-κB inhibitor with anti-inflammatory activity in vitro and in vivo, while its structurally related derivatives plumierdin, plumeridoid C, and allamandicin did not have activity.[4] The lignan pinoresinol and coumarins such as scopoletin and scoparone have been isolated from A. schottii.[5]

Allamanda species have been used in systems of traditional medicine for various purposes. A. cathartica has been used to treat liver tumors,[5] jaundice, splenomegaly, and malaria.[3] In analyses, some species have shown some activity against carcinoma cells, pathogenic fungi, and HIV.[3]




Cultivation[edit]

In the wild, allamandas grow along riverbanks and other open, sunny areas with adequate rainfall and perpetually moist substrate. The plants do not tolerate shade or salty or alkaline soils, and they are sensitive to frost. They grow rapidly, sometimes spreading 3 meters per year. They can be propagated from cuttings.

Ecology[edit]

Allamandas have become naturalized throughout the tropics, growing in roadside ditches, abandoned yards, and dumps. A. cathartica in particular is an invasive species in Queensland.[6] Cutting is ineffective as a means of control, because the plants respond by coppicing.

Taxonomy[edit]

There are about 12 to 15 valid species in the genus.[2]

Species and synonyms include:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b de Souza-Silva, R. F. and A. Rapini. (2009). Allamanda calcicola (Apocynaceae), an overlooked new species from limestone outcrops in the States of Minas Gerais and Bahia, Brazil. Kew Bulletin 64(1), 171-74.
  2. ^ a b c d Allamanda. FloraBase. Western Australian Herbarium.
  3. ^ a b c Haron, F. F., et al. (2013). Bioassay-guided isolation of antifungal plumericin from Allamanda species (Apocynaceae). Journal of Biological Sciences 13, 158-62.
  4. ^ Fakhrudin N, Waltenberger B, Cabaravdic M, Atanasov AG, Malainer C, Schachner D, Heiss EH, Liu R, Noha SM, Grzywacz AM, Mihaly-Bison J, Awad EM, Schuster D, Breuss JM, Rollinger JM, Bochkov V, Stuppner H, Dirsch VM. Identification of plumericin as a potent new scaffold inhibitor of the NF-κB pathway with anti-inflammatory activity in vitro and in vivo. Br J Pharmacol. 2013 Dec 16. doi: 10.1111/bph.12558. PubMed PMID: 24329519.
  5. ^ a b Schmidt, D. D. F. N., et al. (2006). Evaluation of the anti-proliferative effect the extracts of Allamanda blanchetti and A. schottii on the growth of leukemic and endothelial cells. J Pharm Pharm Sci 9, 200-08.
  6. ^ Allamanda cathartica. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  7. ^ Allamanda cathartica. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).
  8. ^ Allamanda cathartica. Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants. University of South Florida.
  9. ^ Allamanda schottii. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

External links[edit]

  • Allamanda cathartica. In: Francis, J. K. Wildland Shrubs of the United States and its Territories. USDA Forest Service, IITF, Shrub Sciences Laboratory.
  • (Portuguese) Allamanda. Flora Brasiliensis.