Amebicide

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Amoebicide)
Jump to: navigation, search

An amebicide (or amoebicide) is an agent used in the treatment of amoebozoa infections.[1][2] Among these agents are the following, linked to the infections they are used to treat:

Although Naegleria is sometimes considered amoeboid, it is not closely related to the Amoebozoa (it is much more closely related to Trypanosoma), and agents used to treat Naegleria infections (such as Amphotericin B) are usually addressed separately.

Entamoeba[edit]

  • Metronidazole, or a related drug such as Tinidazole, Secnidazole or Ornidazole, is used to destroy amoebae that have invaded tissue.
  • Several drugs are available for treating intestinal infections, the most effective of which has been shown to be Paromomycin (also known as Humatin).

E. histolytica infections occur in both the intestine and (in people with symptoms) in tissue of the intestine and/or liver.[3] As a result, both tissue and luminal drugs are needed to treat the infection, one for each location. Metronidazole is usually given first, followed by Paromomycin or Diloxanide.

E. dispar does not require treatment, but many laboratories (even in the developed world) do not have the facilities to distinguish this from E. histolytica.

Tissue amebicides[edit]

Metronidazole, or a related drug such as tinidazole, secnidazole or ornidazole, is used to destroy amoebae that have invaded tissue.[3] These are rapidly absorbed into the bloodstream and transported to the site of infection. Because they are rapidly absorbed there is almost none remaining in the intestine.

For amebic dysentery a multi-prong approach must be used, starting with one of:

  • metronidazole 500–750 mg three times a day for 5–10 days
  • tinidazole 2g once a day for 3 days is an alternative to metronidazole

Doses for children are calculated by body weight and a pharmacist should be consulted for help.

Lumenal amebicides[edit]

Since most of the amoebae remain in the intestine when tissue invasion occurs, it is important to get rid of those also or the patient will be at risk of developing another case of invasive di effective of which has been shown to be paromomycin (also known as Humatin); iodoquinol (also known as Yodoxin) is used in the US; and diloxanide furoate (also known as Furamide) is used in certain other countries.

In addition to the tissue amebicides above, one of the following lumenal amebicides should be prescribed as an adjunctive treatment, either concurrently or sequentially, to destroy E. histolytica in the colon:

Doses for children are calculated by body weight and a pharmacist should be consulted for help.

For amebic liver abscess[edit]

For amebic liver abscess:

  • Metronidazole 400 mg three times a day for 10 days
  • Tinidazole 2g once a day for 6 days is an alternative to metronidazole
  • Diloxanide furoate 500 mg three times a day for 10 days (or one of the other lumenal amebicides above) must always be given afterwards

Doses for children are calculated by body weight and a pharmacist should be consulted for help.

Acanthamoeba[edit]

Propamidine isethionate has been used in the treatment of Acanthamoeba infection.[4]

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Dorlands Medical Dictionary:amebicide". 
  2. ^ Amebicides at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)
  3. ^ a b Ryan KJ, Ray CG (editors) (2004). Sherris Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). McGraw Hill. pp. 733–8. ISBN 0-8385-8529-9. 
  4. ^ Perrine D, Chenu JP, Georges P, Lancelot JC, Saturnino C, Robba M (February 1995). "Amoebicidal efficiencies of various diamidines against two strains of Acanthamoeba polyphaga". Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 39 (2): 339–42. doi:10.1128/aac.39.2.339. PMC 162538. PMID 7726493.