|Group:||Group I (dsDNA)|
Ampullaviridae is a family of viruses that infect archaea. Only one genus in this family has been described. Only one species within this genus is known (Acidianus bottle-shaped virus).
The name is derived from the word ampulla (Latin for bottle).
These viruses are enveloped with an unusual morphology. The viron has a bottle-shaped morphology with one narrow end that smoothly expands into a wider end. The narrow end of the viron projects beyond the envelope. The core of the viron is cone shaped and consists of three distinct structural units: the 'stopper', a nucleoprotein cone, consisting of double-stranded DNA and DNA-binding proteins and an inner core. The broad end of the viron exhibits an unusual structure with the 20 (±2) thin filaments regularly distributed around, and inserted into, a disc or ring. The virons are 230 ± 20 nanometers (nm) in length, 75 ± 5 nm at the broad end and 4 ± 1 nm at the narrow end. The narrow end appears to bind to the host and is probably involved in viral genome transfer.
The genome is linear double-stranded DNA and ~23.8 kilobases in length. It encodes 56 open reading frames including at least six structural proteins.
- Häring M., R. Rachel, X. Peng, R. A. Garrett, and D. Prangishvili (2005) Diverse viruses in hot springs of Pozzuoli, Italy, including a unique bottle-shaped archaeal virus ABV from a new family, the Ampullaviridae. J. Virol. 147, 2419–2429.
- Viral zone