|Group:||Group I (dsDNA)|
Ampullaviridae is a family of viruses that infect archaea. Only one genus in this family has been described. Only one species within this genus is known (Acidianus bottle-shaped virus).
The family was described during the investigation of the microbial flora of hot springs in Italy.
The name is derived from the word ampulla (Latin for bottle).
These viruses are enveloped with an unusual morphology. The viron has a bottle-shaped morphology with one narrow end that smoothly expands into a wider end. The narrow end of the viron projects beyond the envelope. The core of the viron is cone shaped and consists of three distinct structural units: the 'stopper', a nucleoprotein cone, consisting of double-stranded DNA and DNA-binding proteins and an inner core. The broad end of the viron exhibits an unusual structure with the 20 (± 2) thin filaments regularly distributed around, and inserted into, a disc or ring. The virons are 230 ± 20 nanometers (nm) in length, 75 ± 5 nm at the broad end and 4 ± 1 nm at the narrow end. The narrow end appears to bind to the host and is probably involved in viral genome transfer.
The genome is linear double-stranded DNA and ~23.8 kilobases in length. It encodes 56 open reading frames including at least six structural proteins.
- Häring M., R. Rachel, X. Peng, R. A. Garrett, and D. Prangishvili (2005) Diverse viruses in hot springs of Pozzuoli, Italy, including a unique bottle-shaped archaeal virus ABV from a new family, the Ampullaviridae. J. Virol. 147, 2419-2429.
- Viral zone