Arduin of Ivrea
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Arduin of Ivrea (955–1015) was Margrave of Ivrea and King of Italy. He was the son of Dado, Count of Pombia. Arduin succeeded to the northern Italian Margraviate of Ivrea in 990 on dubious grounds. He was excommunicated for the murder of the Bishop of Vercelli in 997.
He was made King of Italy after the death of Otto III in 1002, while in Germany Henry II was acclaimed king. At first Arduin was "elected by the Lombards in Pavia and was called ‘caesar’ [emperor] by all", according to the chronicler Arnulf of Milan. He then made the rounds of the kingdom with the Archbishop of Milan publicly at his side. The territorial magnates of Italy professed to favour him but secretly were in favour of Henry, according to Arnulf. His enemies in the church, led by Frederick, Archbishop of Ravenna, sided with the new king of Germany. Henry sent Duke Otto I of Carinthia, whom he set over the March of Verona, to face Arduin, who was successful in a pitched battle at Fabrica.
Henry then invaded Italy with a large force that left Germany in March 1004 and arrived at Trent on 9 April 1004. He met Arduin outside Verona, where Arduin was disappointed by a poor showing from his erstwhile supporters. Henry entered Pavia, ancient capital of Italy, and had himself crowned king on 14 May in San Michele and then burned the city that had given shelter to Arduin. This had its effect: "all of Italy was horrified by this and likewise extremely fearful. As confidence in Arduin waned from this time on, Henry's power prevailed everywhere." Arduin took revenge on those who had been unfaithful to him. According to Arnulf, he
captured the city of Vercelli, besieged Novara, invaded Como, and destroyed many other places opposed to him. In the end [1014–15], worn down by labor and sickness and deprived of his kingdom, he was content with the monastery named Fruttuaria alone. There, after the regalia had been placed upon the altar and he had donned the habit of a pauper, he fell asleep in his own time [died on 14 December 1015].
After his death the Margraviate of Ivrea, which had given the Ottonian emperors so much trouble, was dissolved.
Popular Culture 
Arduin of Irvrea's name is the root for the name of the popular open source hardware platform Arduino.
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- Liber gestorum recentium I.14
- Arnulf, I.16
Title last held byOtto III
|King of Italy