|Antenna spire||102 m (335 ft)|
|Design and construction|
The Atomium is a building in Brussels originally constructed for Expo 58, the 1958 Brussels World's Fair. Designed by the engineer André Waterkeyn and architects André and Jean Polak, it stands 102 m (335 ft) tall. Its nine 18 m (59 ft) diameter stainless steel clad spheres are connected so that the whole forms the shape of a unit cell of an iron crystal magnified 165 billion times.
Tubes connect the spheres along the 12 edges of the cube and all eight vertices to the centre. They enclose escalators and a lift to allow access to the five habitable spheres which contain exhibit halls and other public spaces. The top sphere provides a panoramic view of Brussels. CNN named it Europe's most bizarre building.
Renovation of the Atomium began in March 2004; it was closed to the public in October, and remained closed until 18 February 2006. The renovations included replacing the faded aluminium sheets on the sphere with stainless steel. To help pay for renovations, the old aluminium was sold to the public as souvenirs. A triangular piece about 2 m long sold for €1,000.
Three of the four top spheres lack vertical support and hence are not open to the public for safety reasons, although the sphere at the pinnacle is open to the public. The original design called for no supports; the structure was simply to rest on the spheres. Wind tunnel tests proved that the structure would have toppled in an 80 km/h wind (140 km/h winds have been recorded in Belgium). Support columns were added to achieve enough resistance against overturning.
Worldwide copyright claims
SABAM, Belgium's society for collecting copyrights, has claimed worldwide intellectual property rights on all reproductions of the image via the United States Artists Rights Society (ARS). For example SABAM issued a demand that a United States website remove all images of them from its pages. The website responded by replacing all such images with a warning not to take photographs of the Atomium, and that Asbl Atomium will sue if you show them to anyone. Sabam confirmed that permission is required.
Ralf Ziegermann remarked on the complicated copyright instructions on Atomium's Web site specific to "private pictures". The organisers of Belgian heritage, Anno Expo (planning the 50th anniversary celebrations of Expo 58), in the city of Mechelen announced a "cultural guerrilla strike" by asking people to send in their old photographs of the Atomium and requested 100 photoshoppers to paint over the balls. SABAM responded that they would make an exception for 2008 and that people could publish private photographs for one year only on condition they were for non-commercial purposes.
Anno Expo later announced they had censored part of their own report due to "complications" and referred to a meeting they had with SABAM. Mechelen's Mayor, Bart Somers, called the Atomium copyright rules absurd.
On 23 February 2009 Axel Addington, Web Content Manager for Atomium, e-mailed a clarification to the Glass Steel and Stone Web site, which some years earlier redacted its photographs of the Atomium after being threatened. He stated, "The royalties are perceived (sic) by the descendants of André Waterkeyn, the engineer who conceived Atomium in 1955, and not by the A.S.B.L Atomium. So, you've probably been sued by the SABAM (Belgian Copyright Company) because of the Waterkeyn Family."
From the Atomium's Web site, the current copyright restrictions exempt private individuals under the following conditions,
This is the case where photographs are taken by private individuals and shown on private websites for no commercial purpose (the current trend for photo albums).
In accordance with legislation, usage rights for the image of the Atomium would naturally extend to 1st January 2076, in other words, the seventieth anniversary of André Waterkeyn's death.
- Official website
- Benavides Canepa, Jessica (24 January 2013). "11 of Europe's most bizarre buildings". CNN. Turner Broadcasting System, Inc. Retrieved 25 January 2013.
- "Atomium (1958) | Structurae" (in German). En.structurae.de. 24 February 2006. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
- "Such unlicensed reproduction and use of artwork on any Internet site with public access is considered in violation of the worldwide intellectual property rights of the rightsholders, including without limitation, copyright, trademark rights and moral rights". Chillingeffects.org. 14 July 2003.
- 100 "photoshoppers" wanted to erase copyright building Simon Aughton, MacUser News, 21 April 2008, '"Since its creation, the Atomium is a copyrighted monument and any reproduction of its image in a publication or on a website must be accompanied by a prior authorisation request to the rightholders or to Sabam,"a spokeswoman said.'
- Atomium, The :: Boulevard du Centenaire, Brussels, Belgium :: Glass Steel and Stone "Even if you are an American and think you are protected by U.S. copyright law Title 17, Chapter 1, Section 120, you will still be sued."
- The Cartoonist, Ralf Ziegermann, 5 January 2008
- Copyright photo, Official blog of the Atomium & Expo 58, 2008, "In the precise and exclusive case of information articles related to the festivities of the fiftieth birthday of the Atomium and of Expo 58, private pictures intended for non-commercial and non-promotional purposes, published in low resolution (max. 600 pixels wide / 72 dpi), are free from copyrights. However, the copyright © Sabam 2008 - www.atomium.be must be mentioned."
- the balls of Brussels (web archive), embe, 10 April 2008 (English)
- Anno-Expo, (Dutch)
- Belangrijk bericht aan de bezoekers / inzenders / photoshoppers / lezers (Dutch)
- Sabam in het nauw, Christophe Callewaert, 9 April 2008 (Dutch)
- Atomium.be copyright, retrieved 26 March 2010.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Atomium.|
- Official website
- Atomium renovation and interior design by Conix Architects
- Atomium at Structurae
- Webcam Atomium
- Atomium: virtual visit
- Free Pictures Atomium
- Brussels Discovery
- Atomium's architecture