Atonement in Judaism

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"Kapparah" redirects here. For the ritual preceding Yom Kippur, see Kapparos.

Atonement in Judaism is the process of causing a transgression to be forgiven or pardoned.

In the Hebrew Bible[edit]

In the Hebrew Bible the idea of atonement (Hebrew כפרת kaphoreth) is connected with "covering."

In Rabbinic Judaism[edit]

In Rabbinic Judaism, atonement is achieved through some combination of

  • repentance
  • Temple service (e.g. bringing a sacrifice)
  • confession
  • restitution
  • the occurrence of Yom Kippur (the day itself, as distinct from the Temple service performed on it)
  • tribulations (unpleasant life experiences)
  • the carrying out of a sentence of lashes or execution imposed by an ordained court (not now in existence)
  • the experience of dying.

Which of these are required varies according to the severity of the sin, whether it was done willfully, in error, or under duress, whether it was against God alone or also against a fellow person, and whether the Temple service and ordained law courts are in existence or not. Repentance is needed in all cases of willful sin, and restitution is always required in the case of sin against a fellow person, unless the wronged party waives it.

The following table, based on Maimonides (Hil. Teshuva 1:1-4), gives an outline of the requirements for atonement in sins between man and God:

Duress Error Willfulness
Positive commandment none none Repentance + confession or Yom Kippur Temple service
Negative commandment none none Repentance + confession + Yom Kippur or Yom Kippur Temple service
Severe negative commandment none Sin offering (if Temple exists) in some cases + confession Repentance + confession + Yom Kippur + tribulations or Repentance + confession + Yom Kippur Temple service
Profaning God's Name Repentance Sin offering (if Temple exists) in some cases + confession Repentance + confession + Yom Kippur + tribulations + dying

The sentence of an ordained court (when available) can also substitute for Yom Kippur + tribulations + dying. It is important to note that once a person has repented, he can be close to and beloved of God, even if his atonement is not yet complete (ibid. 7:7).

Lashes (Makkot)[edit]

The third chapter of tractate Makkot enumerates fifty-nine offenses, each entailing lashes. Of these, three are marital sins of priests; four, prohibited inter-marriages; seven, sexual relations of an incestuous nature; eight, violations of dietary laws; twelve, various violations of the negative precepts; twenty-five, abuses of Levitical laws and vows. When the offense has been persisted in, the punishment depends on the number of forewarnings (see Hatra'ah). The Mishnah gives thirty-nine as the maximum number of stripes the court may impose for any one misdemeanor; but the convict must be examined as to his physical ability to endure the full count without endangering his life. The convict is bound in bent position to a post, and the public executioner administers the punishment with a leather strap while one of the judges recites appropriate Scriptural verses (Deut. xxviii. 15, 29; xxix. 8; Ps. lxxviii. 38). Any one guilty of a sin which is punished by Kareth ("excision") may be cleared by flagellation. The author of this midrash, Ḥanina b. Gamaliel, adds, "If by the commission of a sin one forfeits his soul before God, so much the more reason is there for the belief that, by a meritorious deed, such as voluntary submission to punishment, his soul is saved."[1]

Execution[edit]

Warrants for the infliction of capital punishment, as opposed to private retribution or vengeance, are found in the Pentateuchal codes for the commission of any one of the following crimes: adultery (Lev. xx. 10; Deut. xxii. 22); bestiality (Ex. xxii. 18 [A. V. 19]; Lev. xx. 15); blasphemy (Lev. xxiv. 16); false evidence (intended to lead to a conviction) in capital cases (Deut. xix. 16-19); false prophecy (Deut. xiii. 6, xviii. 20); idolatry or inciting others to the same (Lev. xx. 2; Deut. xiii. 7-19, xvii. 2-7); incestuous or unnatural connections (Lev. xviii. 22, xx. 11-14); insubordination to supreme authority (Deut. xvii. 12); kidnaping (Ex. xxi. 16; Deut. xxiv. 7); licentiousness of a priest's daughter (Lev. xxi. 9); murder (Ex. xxi. 12; Lev. xxiv. 17; Num. xxxv. 16 et seq.); rape committed on a betrothed woman (Deut. xxii. 25-27) or fornication by or with her (Deut. xxii. 20, 23-24); striking or cursing a parent, or otherwise rebelling against parental authority (Ex. xxi. 15, 17; Lev. xx. 9; Deut. xxi. 18-21); Sabbath-breaking (Ex. xxxi. 14, xxxv. 2; Num. xv. 32-36); witchcraft and augury (Ex. xxii. 17; Lev. xx. 27).[2]

Modes of Punishment

Only in comparatively few instances is the particular mode of death incurred by the commission of a crime prescribed. Blasphemy, idolatry, Sabbath-breaking, witchcraft, fornication by or with a betrothed virgin or the rape thereof, and the rebellious son are, according to the Pentateuchal laws, to be punished with death by stoning; bigamous marriage with a wife's mother or daughter and the prostitution of a priest's daughter are punished by burning; murder and communal apostasy are punished by the sword. With reference to all other capital offenses, the law ordains that the perpetrator shall die a violent death, which traditionally was understood as strangulation. Occasionally the Biblical text adds the expression, "His (their) blood shall be upon him (them)," which traditionally was understood as prescribing death by stoning. The Torah speaks also of hanging (Deut. xxi. 22), but, according to the rabbinical interpretation, not as a mode of execution, but rather of exposure after death (Sanh. vi. 4, 75b).[3]

In other Jewish denominations[edit]

Some Jewish denominations may differ with Rabbinic Judaism on the importance or mechanics of atonement. Consult the articles on specific denominations for details.

External links and Bibliography[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ paraphrased from Jewish Encyclopedia on Makkot (1906, PD), http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/10313-makkot
  2. ^ paraphrased from Jewish Encyclopedia on Makkot (1906, PD), http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/14061-stoning
  3. ^ paraphrased from Jewish Encyclopedia on Makkot (1906, PD), http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/14061-stoning. See also Maimonides, Hil. Sanhedrin, ch.14.