Azure kingfisher

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Azure kingfisher
Alcedo azurea - Julatten.jpg
A. a. ruficollaris
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Coraciiformes
Family: Alcedinidae
Genus: Alcedo
Species: A. azurea
Binomial name
Alcedo azurea
Latham, 1802
Subspecies
  • A. a. azurea Latham, 1802
    Southern Australian population
  • A. a. ruficollaris (Bankier, 1841)
    Northern Australian population
  • A. a. dienemensis (Gould, 1846)
    Tasmanian population
  • A. a. lessonii (Cassin, 1850)
    Southern New Guinea population
  • A. a. affinis (G.R. Gray, 1860)
    North Maluku population
  • A. a. yamdenae (Rothschild, 1901)
    South Banda Sea population
  • A. a. ochrogaster (Reichenow, 1903)
    Northern New Guinea population

The azure kingfisher (Alcedo azurea) is a small kingfisher (17–19 centimetres (6.7–7.5 in)), in the river kingfisher family, Alcedinidae. It is found in Northern and Eastern Australia and Tasmania, as well as the lowlands of New Guinea and neighbouring islands, and out to North Maluku and Romang.

It is a very colourful bird, with deep blue to azure back, a large white to buff spot on side of neck and throat, rufous-buff with some blue-violet streaks on breast and flanks. The feet are red with only two forward toes. The lores (the region between the eye and the bill) are white and inconspicuous except in front view, where they stand out as two large white eye-like spots which may have a role in warding off potential predators.

Azure kingfisher showing large white eye-like lores

The subspecies differ only in minor details. ruficollaris is smaller, brighter, and has more blue on the flanks. diemenensis is rather large, short-billed, and has a distinctly darker crown. lessoni is more contrasting, with little blue on the flanks. affinis has a red billtip, as has the smaller yamdenae, and ochrogaster is very pale below. Still, there is very little intergradation in the areas where subspecies meet. Comparing subspecific variation with climate data, the former's pattern does not follow and in some instances runs contrary to Bergmann's Rule and Gloger's Rule (Schodde & Mason, 1976, Woodall, 2001).

The contact zone between the mainland Australian subspecies is along the east coast of Far North Queensland, between Cairns and Princess Charlotte Bay (Schodde & Mason 1976), that of the New Guinea ones between Simbu Province and the northern Huon Peninsula, as well as south of Cenderawasih Bay (Woodall, 2001).

Habitat includes the banks of vegetated creeks, lakes, swamps, tidal estuaries and mangroves. Often difficult to see until it quickly darts from a perch above water. Feeds on freshwater yabbies and small fish. Nest in a chamber up to 1 metre long in an earthen creek bank. 5–7 white, rounded, glossy eggs. Voice is a high-pitched, shrill, 'pseet-pseet'.

References[edit]

External links[edit]

Data related to Alcedo azurea at Wikispecies