BSSN formalism

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The BSSN Formalism, developed by Thomas W. Baumgarte, Stuart L. Shapiro, Masaru Shibata, and Takashi Nakamura from 1987 to 1999, is a modification of the ADM formalism Hamiltonian formulation of general relativity.[1]

The ADM formalism does not permit stable and long-term numerical simulations. In the BSSN formalism, the ADM equations are modified by introducing auxiliary variables. The formalism has been tested for a long-term evolution of linear gravitational waves and used for a variety of purposes such as to simulate the non-linear evolution of gravitational waves, or the evolution and collision of black holes.[2][3]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Jinho Kim (2008-07-28). "General Relativistic Hydrodynamics Using BSSN formalism". Seoul National University. Retrieved 2009-10-19. [dead link]
  2. ^ Masaru Shibata (October 2004). "Status of numerical relativity". Indian Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 2009-10-19. 
  3. ^ Takashi Nakamura (2006). "Formation of black hole and emission of gravitational waves". Japan Academy. Retrieved 2009-10-19.