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A baby boom is any period marked by a greatly increased birth rate. This demographic phenomenon is usually ascribed within certain geographical bounds and when the number of annual births exceeds 2 per 100 women (or approximately 2% of the total population size). People born during such a period are often called baby boomers; however, some experts distinguish between those born during such demographic baby booms and those who identify with the overlapping cultural generations. Conventional wisdom states that baby booms signify good times and periods of general economic growth and stability.
The HIV/AIDS crisis in Africa has contributed, ironically, to a population boom. Aid money used for contraceptives has been diverted over the past two decades into fighting HIV, with the number of babies born far outstripping the deaths from AIDS.  Ironically, it is the deaths of children that spur traumatized parents to replace their dead children with excess. Muriana Taiwo, 45, explained that it was “God’s will” for him to have 12 children by his three wives, calling each child a “blessing” because so many of his own siblings had died.
United States 
The term "baby boom" most often refers to the post–World War II baby boom (1946–1964). There is an estimated 78.3 million Americans who were born during this demographic boom in births. The term is a general demographic one and is also applicable to other similar population expansions.
Recent baby boom periods include the following:
- Post–World War II baby boom: Years of duration vary, depending on the source (e.g., 1943–1960, 1946–1964).
- Decreţei: (1967-1989), A baby boom in Romania caused by a ban on abortion and contraception.
- Echo baby boom (Millennial Generation): (1982–2000), the children of the post-WWII baby boomers.
See also 
- Agequake (book)
- American social policy during the Second Red Scare
- Baby boomers
- Generations (book)
- Population boom
- Population bottleneck
- Death rates in the 20th century
- "Baby Boom Population: U.S. Census Bureau, USA and by State". Boomers Life. 2008-07-01. Archived from the original on 5 June 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-18.
- CDC Bottom of this page http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/vsus.htm "Vital Statistics of the United States, 2003, Volume I, Natality", Table 1-1 "Live births, birth rates, and fertility rates, by race: United States, 1909-2003."
- U.S. Census Bureau — Oldest Boomers Turn 60 (2006)
- Strauss, William, & Howe, Neil (1992). Generations: The history of America's future, 1584 to 2069. Harper Perennial. p. 324. ISBN 0-688-11912-3.
- U.S. Census Bureau (January 3, 2001). "Oldest Baby Boomers Turn 60!". Retrieved August 3, 2009.
- Leung, Rebecca (2005-09-04). "The Echo Boomers". 60 Minutes (CBS News). Archived from the original on 30 August 2010. Retrieved 2010-08-24.
- Marino, Vivian (August 20, 2006). "College-Town Real Estate: The Next Big Niche?". The New York Times. p. 1. Retrieved September 25, 2010. "College enrollments have been on the rise as the baby boomers' children — sometimes known as the "echo boom" generation — come of age. This group, born from 1982 to 1995, is about 80 million strong."
Further reading