Balkan mixed forests

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Forests on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast.
Geographical position of Balkan mixed forests ecoregion

The Balkan mixed forests constitute a terrestrial ecoregion of Europe according to both the WWF and Digital Map of European Ecological Regions by the European Environment Agency. It belongs in the Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests Biome and the Palearctic ecozone.


The Balkan mixed forests cover much of the valleys, plains and mountain slopes of the eastern Balkans on different altitudes (except higher parts of the Rhodope and Balkan Mountains, where they are substituted by the Rodope montane mixed forests), extend from approximately the Drina valley to the coasts of the Black, Marmara and Aegean Seas and occupy 224,400 km² (86,600 sq. mi) in Turkey, Greece, the Republic of Macedonia, Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia (Kosovo). The ecoregion is surrounded by the Euxine-Colchic deciduous forests (in Turkey, Georgia and Bulgaria), Aegean and Western Turkey sclerophyllous and mixed forests (in Greece), Pindus Mountains mixed forests (in Greece, the Republic of Macedonia and Albania), Dinaric Mountains mixed forests (in Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina), Pannonian mixed forests (in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia and Romania), Carpathian montane conifer forests, Central European mixed forests (both in Romania), as well as the East European forest steppe and Pontic steppe (both situated in Romania and Bulgaria).


The climate of the ecoregion is mostly of Köppen's humid subtropical (Cfa) to humid warm summer continental (Dfb) type, with wet winters. Some areas of relatively high rainfall have been considered a temperate rainforest relict.

Several species of deciduous oaks (most prominently Quercus frainetto Ten., as well as Q. cerris L., Q. pubescens Willd. and others) dominate most of the ecoregion's forests, interspersed higher up mountainsides (above 800–1200 m) mostly with European Beech and such conifers as Scots Pine, Bosnian pine, Macedonian Pine, Silver Fir and Norway Spruce. The highest peaks support alpine tundra vegetation.

Phytogeographically, the ecoregion is shared between parts of the Central European, Illyrian and Euxinian provinces of the Circumboreal Region within the Holarctic Kingdom (according to Armen Takhtajan's delineation).

External links[edit]

Apennine deciduous montane forests Italy
Atlantic mixed forests Denmark, France, Belgium, Germany, Netherlands
Azores temperate mixed forests Portugal
Balkan mixed forests Greece, Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Bulgaria, Turkey
Baltic mixed forests Sweden, Denmark, Germany, Poland
Cantabrian mixed forests Spain, Portugal
Caspian Hyrcanian mixed forests Iran, Azerbaijan
Caucasus mixed forests Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Russia, Turkey
Celtic broadleaf forests United Kingdom, Ireland
Central Anatolian deciduous forests Turkey
Central China loess plateau mixed forests China
Central European mixed forests Austria, Germany, Lithuania, Moldova, Poland, Belarus, Czech Republic
Central Korean deciduous forests North Korea, South Korea
Changbai Mountains mixed forests China, North Korea
Changjiang Plain evergreen forests China
Crimean Submediterranean forest complex Russia, Ukraine
Daba Mountains evergreen forests China
Dinaric Mountains mixed forests Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Italy, Montenegro, Serbia, Slovenia, Croatia
East European forest steppe Bulgaria, Moldova, Romania, Russia, Ukraine
Eastern Anatolian deciduous forests Turkey
English Lowlands beech forests United Kingdom
Euxine-Colchic deciduous forests Georgia, Turkey
Hokkaido deciduous forests Japan
Huang He Plain mixed forests China
Madeira evergreen forests Portugal
Manchurian mixed forests China, North Korea, Russia, South Korea
Nihonkai evergreen forests Japan
Nihonkai montane deciduous forests Japan
North Atlantic moist mixed forests Ireland, United Kingdom
Northeast China Plain deciduous forests China
Pannonian mixed forests Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Ukraine, Croatia
Po Basin mixed forests Italy
Pyrenees conifer and mixed forests France, Spain, Andorra
Qin Ling Mountains deciduous forests China
Rodope montane mixed forests Greece, Macedonia, Serbia, Bulgaria
Sarmatic mixed forests Russia, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Finland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Belarus
Sichuan Basin evergreen broadleaf forests China
South Sakhalin-Kurile mixed forests Russia
Southern Korea evergreen forests South Korea
Taiheiyo evergreen forests Japan
Taiheiyo montane deciduous forests Japan
Tarim Basin deciduous forests and steppe China
Ussuri broadleaf and mixed forests Russia
West Siberian broadleaf and mixed forests Russia
Western European broadleaf forests Switzerland, Austria, France, Germany, Czech Republic
Zagros Mountains forest steppe Iran, Arabian Peninsula