November 16, 1936 |
|Alma mater||Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
|Doctoral advisor||Marvin Minsky|
Early life and education
Raphael was born in 1936 in New York. He received his bachelor's degree in physics from the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in 1957. He was a student of Marvin Minsky at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and received his PhD in mathematics in 1964.
Raphael started at SRI International in 1964 as a consultant. After completing his Ph.D. at MIT, he was at the University of California, Berkeley for an academic year, and subsequently joined SRI full time in April 1965. He was a long-time member of SRI's Artificial Intelligence Center, and was its director from 1970 to 1973. While at SRI, he helped invent the A* search algorithm and develop Shakey the robot, which was one of the first projects sponsored by DARPA; Raphael directed work on Shakey from 1970 to 1971. He also co-founded the Journal of Artificial Intelligence.
He was a Senior Fulbright Lecturer in Vienna during 1973 and 1974.
- The Thinking Computer: Mind Inside Matter (W.H. Freeman & Company, 1976)
- SIR (Semantic Information Retrieval program) on the logical representation of knowledge for question-answering systems (MIT, 1964)
- "Oral History: Bertram Raphael". IEEE Global History Network. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. Retrieved 2012-02-25.
- Nilsson, Nils J. (2010). The Quest for Artificial Intelligence: A History of Ideas and Achievements (PDF). Stanford University.
- "Dr Bertram Raphael". Artificial Intelligence Center. Retrieved 2012-02-24.