Body surface area

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In physiology and medicine, the body surface area (BSA) is the measured or calculated surface area of a human body. For many clinical purposes BSA is a better indicator of metabolic mass than body weight because it is less affected by abnormal adipose mass. Nevertheless, there have been several important critiques of the use of BSA in determining the dosage of medications with a narrow therapeutic index like many chemotherapy medications. Typically there is a 4-10 fold variation in cytotoxic drug clearance between individuals due to differing activity of drug elimination processes related to genetic and environmental factors. This can lead to significant overdosing and even more perniciously to underdosing (and increased risk of cancer recurrence). It is also thought to be a distorting factor in Phase I and II trials that may result in potentially helpful medications being prematurely rejected.[1][2] The trend to personalized medicine is one approach to counter this weakness. Estimation of BSA is simpler than many measures of volume.

Uses[edit]

Examples of uses of the BSA:

Calculation[edit]

Various calculations have been published to arrive at the BSA without direct measurement. In the following formulas, BSA is in m2, W is weight in kg, and H is height in cm.

The most widely used is the Du Bois formula:[3][4] [5]

{BSA}=0.007184 \times W^{0.425} \times H^{0.725}

A commonly used and simple one is the Mosteller formula:[6]

{BSA }= \sqrt\frac{W \times H }{3600} 
=  0.016667 \times W^{0.5} \times H^{0.5} or even simpler :{BSA}= \sqrt{W \times H} / {60} or if Ht is height in m :{BSA}= \sqrt{W \times Ht} / {600}

Other formulas for BSA in m2 include:

Haycock[7]  0.024265 \times W^{0.5378} \times H^{0.3964}
Gehan and George[8]      0.0235 \times W^{0.51456} \times H^{0.42246}
Boyd [9][10]  0.0003207
 \times weight \mbox{(g)}^{(0.7285 - 0.0188 \log_{10}{weight \mathrm{ (g)}})}
 \times H^{0.3}
    or equivalently      0.03330
  \times W^{(0.6157 - 0.0188  \log_{10} {W})} \times H^{0.3}
Fujimoto[11]  0.008883  \times W^{0.444} \times H^{0.663}
Takahira[11]  0.007241  \times W^{0.425} \times H^{0.725}
Schlich[12] 0.000975482 \times W^{0.46} \times H^{1.08}       (women)
0.000579479 \times W^{0.38} \times H^{1.24}       (men)

A weight-based formula was proposed by Costeff and recently validated for the pediatric age group that does not include a square root, making it easier to use. It is [4Wkg+7]/[90+Wkg].[13][14]

Average values[edit]

Average BSA for children of various ages, for men, and for women, are taken to be:

Neonate (newborn)   0.25
Child of 2 years 0.5
9 years         1.07
10 years 1.14
12–13 years 1.33
Women 1.6
Men 1.9

There was an average BSA of 1.73 m2 for 3,000 cancer patients from 1990 to 1998 in a European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) database.[15] During 2005 there was an average BSA of 1.79 m2 for 3,613 adult cancer patients in the UK. Among them the average BSA for men was 1.91 m2 and for women was 1.71 m2.[16] However, there is some evidence that BSA values are less accurate at extremes of height and weight, where Body Mass Index may be a better estimate. [17]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Gurney H (April 2002). "How to calculate the dose of chemotherapy". Br. J. Cancer 86 (8): 1297–302. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6600139. PMC 2375356. PMID 11953888. 
  2. ^ Gao B, Klumpen HJ, Gurney H (October 2008). "Dose calculation of anticancer drugs". Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol 4 (10): 1307–19. doi:10.1517/17425255.4.10.1307. PMID 18798700. 
  3. ^ Du Bois D, Du Bois EF (Jun 1916). "A formula to estimate the approximate surface area if height and weight be known". Archives of Internal Medicine 17 (6): 863–71. doi:10.1001/archinte.1916.00080130010002. PMID 2520314. Retrieved 2012-09-09. 
  4. ^ Verbraecken, J; Van de Heyning P; De Backer W; Van Gaal L (Apr 2006). "Body surface area in normal-weight, overweight, and obese adults. A comparison study". Metabolism — Clinical and Experimental 55 (4): 515–24. doi:10.1016/j.metabol.2005.11.004. PMID 16546483. Retrieved 2012-09-07. 
  5. ^ Sardinha, LB; Silva, AM; Minderico, CS; Teixeira, PJ (2006). "Effect of body surface area calculations on body fat estimates in non-obese and obese subjects.". Physiological Measurement 27 (11): 1197–209. doi:10.1088/0967-3334/27/11/012. PMID 17028412. 
  6. ^ Mosteller RD. "Simplified calculation of body-surface area". N Engl J Med 1987; 317:1098. PMID 3657876.
  7. ^ Haycock GB, Schwartz GJ, Wisotsky DH "Geometric method for measuring body surface area: A height-weight formula validated in infants, children and adults" J Pediatr 1978, 93:62-66.
  8. ^ Gehan EA, George SL, Cancer Chemother Rep 1970, 54:225-235
  9. ^ Current, JD (1998). "A Linear Equation For Estimating The Body Surface Area In Infants And Children". The Internet Journal of Anesthesiology 2 (2). doi:10.5580/1c6c. Retrieved 2012-09-09. 
  10. ^ Boyd, Edith (1935). The Growth of the Surface Area of the Human Body. University of Minnesota. The Institute of Child Welfare, Monograph Series, No. x. London: Oxford University Press.
  11. ^ a b Fujimoto S, Watanabe T, Sakamoto A, Yukawa K, Morimoto K. Studies on the physical surface area of Japanese. 18. Calculation formulae in three stages over all ages. Nippon Eiseigaku Zasshi 1968;5:443–50.
  12. ^ Schlich E, Schumm M, Schlich M: "3-D-Body-Scan als anthropometrisches Verfahren zur Bestimmung der spezifischen Körperoberfläche". Ernährungs Umschau 2010;57:178-183.
  13. ^ Costeff H, "A simple empirical formula for calculating approximate surface area in children.," Arch Dis Child, vol. 41, no. 220, pp. 681–683, Dec. 1966.
  14. ^ Furqan, M; Haque, A (December 2009). "Surface area in children: a simple formula.". Indian pediatrics 46 (12): 1085–7. PMID 19430073. 
  15. ^ Sparreboom A, Verweij J (15 Jul 2003). "Paclitaxel Pharmacokinetics, Threshold Models, and Dosing Strategies". Journal of Clinical Oncology 21 (14): 2803–4. doi:10.1200/JCO.2003.99.038. PMID 12860961. Retrieved 2012-09-09. 
  16. ^ Sacco JJ, Botten J, Macbeth F, Bagust A, Clark P (28 Jan 2010). "The Average Body Surface Area of Adult Cancer Patients in the UK: A Multicentre Retrospective Study". PLoS One 5 (1): e8933. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0008933. PMC 2812484. PMID 20126669. Retrieved 2012-09-09. 
  17. ^ Adler, AC; Nathanson, BH; Raguhunathan, K; McGee, WT (2012). "Misleading indexed hemodynamic parameters: the clinical importance of discordant BMI and BSA at extremes of weight". BioMed Central: Critical Care 16 (6): 471. doi:10.1186/cc11876. PMC 3672608. PMID 23273020. 

External links[edit]