Born in 1594, César de Bourbon was legitimised, and created Duke of Vendôme by his father, the king, in 1598. The title of duc de Vendôme was chosen because it had previously been used by the father of Henry IV of France, and from 1537 to 1562 the title had been held by Antoine of Navarre. After the creation of 1598, the title continued to be used by César de Bourbon's family for over a century.
In 1599, César de Bourbon also inherited the titles of Duke of Beaufort and Duke of Étampes upon the death of his mother. After César de Bourbon's death in 1665, he was succeeded as Duke of Vendôme by his first son Louis (1612–1669), while the title of Duke of Beaufort passed to his second son François (1616–1669).