|Range of C. canadensis Breeding range Wintering range|
These birds have yellow underparts, blue-grey upperparts and pink legs; they also have yellow eye-rings and thin, pointed bills. Adult males have black foreheads and black necklaces. Females and immatures have faint grey necklaces. They have yellow “spectacles” round the eyes.
They breed generally in dense secondary growth forests, red maple swamps or high elevation alpine forests. These forests are located across Canada, east of the Rockies, and in the eastern United States. The nests are shaped like open cups and are placed on the ground in a damp, heavily wooded location, generally characterized by a sphagnum hummock, tree stumps or other woody debris. The female lays four to five eggs and incubates for about 12 days. The chicks remain in the nest for about 10 days after hatching and are dependent on their parents for two to three weeks after they leave the nest.
They forage actively in vegetation or on the ground, and they often catch insects in flight. These birds mainly eat insects. They forage in flocks in their winter habitat.
The song of this bird is loud and highly variable, resembling chip chewy sweet dichetty. Their calls are low chup's.
Canada warblers' numbers have declined due to loss of suitable habitat and the species has been assessed as "threatened" by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. The IUCN, however, ranks the Canada warbler as a species of least concern.
The Canadian population, which accounts for 85% of the global population, is estimated at roughly 2.7 million individuals.
The Canada warbler is protected at the federal level in both Canada and the United States.
John James Audubon illustrates the Canada warbler in Birds of America (published, London 1827-38) as Plate 5 entitled "Bonaparte's Warbler - Muscicapa bonapartii". The single female (now properly identified as a Canada warbler) is shown perched in a Great Magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora) branch that was painted by Joseph Mason. The final, combined image was engraved and colored by Robert Havell Junior at the Havell workshops in London. The original painting was purchased by the New York History Society, where it remains to this day (January 2009).
- BirdLife International (2009). "Wilsonia canadensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 3 June 2012. Database entry includes justification for why this species is of least concern
- Byrd. Helminth Parasites. pp. 391–410.
- "Species Profile: Canada Warbler". http://www.registrelep-sararegistry.gc.ca. Species at Risk Public Registry, Government of Canada. 2014-05-29. Retrieved 5 Jun 2014.
- "Warbler, Canada". http://www.cosewic.gc.ca. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC), Government of Canada. 2011-11-07. Retrieved 5 Jun 2014.
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