Castletown shown within Dorset
|District||Weymouth and Portland|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|EU Parliament||South West England|
|UK Parliament||South Dorset|
Castletown is a small village in Underhill on the Isle of Portland in Dorset. It is located close to Fortuneswell, on the shores of Portland Harbour, and includes a sandy beach, as well as one of Portland's notable highlights; Portland Castle, while the Weymouth and Portland National Sailing Academy is also located nearby.
Castletown has a long naval history, and the village developed with growth of trade and the navy from the late 18th century onwards, in the lee of Portland Castle, which gave it its name. By the 1850s it was the hub of stupendous activity for the Portland Breakwater works and shops, services and hotels soon followed. However, fishing suffered in the village as the long beach was squeezed by a century of naval development.
The village features a single Victorian terrace, which through bay windows, enjoyed a panoramic view over the beach to Portland Harbour. As with the rest of Portland's villages and settlements, Castletown has been designated as a conservation area, as it is a place of special architectural and historic interest, given protection to ensure that people can continue to enjoy their character for years to come. Underhill, incorporating Chiswell, Maidenwell, Fortuneswell and Castletown became designated in 1976 with boundary extensions in 1997 and 2000.
Castletown has consistently stood apart from the other villages on Portland, most of which were established around natural springs. One of the earliest businesses there was a thriving shipbuilding company which Thomas Ayles had established in 1798. As a result there was a number of sheerleg cranes and derricks around the small stone quay. The Jolly Sailor, a pub which opened in 1775, as well as the Old Castle Hotel, drew custom from the increasing number of men of war and merchantmen taking refuge in the Roadstead. Castletown was also an important location for the stone industry on the island, as although various stone shipping quays and piers existed around the island such as King's Pier, Folly Pier, and Durdle Pier, the best facilities were located at Castletown, as it was also sheltered. However it was furstest from the quarries.
As a result the Merchant's Railway, a horse drawn and cable operated incline railway, was constructed, opening in 1826. It ran from Tophill to Castletown's waterfront, around the edge of Verne Hill. The Freeman's Incline section took the stone directly from the Verne top to Castletown. The horses were unhitched from the top of this incline, and a steep rope passed around the brake wheel, and then passed down over the rollers. The weight of these laden trucks descending would pull empty ones back up. New piers at Castletown were constructed for the railway. In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, Portland was well established and infamous for smuggling. Chesil, Castletown and Church Ope Cove were the natural places for landing the goods.
Once the breakwaters of Portland Harbour were given the green-light, several cottages had to be demolished at Castletown, and a railway was constructed to link the piers and jetties at the village's waterfront. The terraced row flourished with the establishment of many businesses, pubs and accommodation. Despite the upheaval, fishing continued from Castletown. A ready market was now established with so many visitors and workmen on the island, although later trade would decease due to the navy's empowering presence within this section of the island. Castletown changed beyond recognition by this point. Whenever a fleet came to berth in the harbour, Castletown came to life. The single street of the village became known as "Drunkards' Row" as it attracted many undesirable, rowdy personalities. Even women were charged with losing control of themselves through alcohol. One counter-measure was the opening of a teetotal coffee shop in 1880 at the nearby Victoria Square. With the breakwater works becoming Dorset's major tourist attraction, the pier was enlarged at Castletown tot take regular paddle steamers from Weymouth.
With the outbreak of the Second World War, Castletown's ship coaling operations closed, although this was largely down to cheaper coal imports and the move from coal to oil. With the importance of Portland's naval base, the island was a natural target for German aircraft, and Castletown had various cases of raids and bombings. Some light anti-aircraft guns would be set up within and around Castletown. As the naval base, along with Weymouth, was a major embarkation point for many American and allied troops for the D-Day landings, this included the village of Castletown where many soldiers and vehicles passed.
With the withdrawal of the navy, Castletown lost the majority of its income and has since suffered from this. Right up to the 1990s the hotels and pubs in the village would be full up whenever a fleet came in. Portland Port became commercial, whilst still servicing and berthing Royal Fleet Auxiliary ships. The village managed to regain somewhat, by the changing to recreational purposes, namely diving. The village became a popular location for divers due to the close distance to Portland Harbour. Castletown features a purpose-built commercial dive boat jetty next to a hotel, gas station, a large public car park and a free slipway for boats. However as of 2014, no diving shops remain active at Castletown.
A small beach is found in the village, close to the entrance of Portland Port. Until 2014, the Underwater Explorers diving shop shop was the last diving centre within the village. The shop relocated to the Weymouth & Portland Sailing Academy. Before that the original Castletown centre was located in a building that was originally a naval bakery. It became the Sea-Horse shop for a time before closing. In 2014 the building became a multi-purpose headquarters for the Dorset-based care providers Agincare. Outside the former barker is an anchor, although originally a DUKW was also situated on the site as well - a six-wheel-drive amphibious truck developed by the United States during World War II for transporting goods and troops over land and water and for use approaching and crossing beaches in amphibious attacks. The village had a post office during the late 19th century which closed further into the following century.
The area still features several hotels and pubs, largely established for the navy personnel that once came from the port. The hotels include The Aqua, The Portland Roads Hotel, the Royal Breakwater Hotel and the public house/hotel The Green Shutters. The other pub in the village is the Sailors Return whilst The Jolly Sailor pub had closed and since the derelict pub has had announced plans in 2012 to become a residential care home. A newsagents is still active within the village, however all diving stores have now either closed or moved elsewhere on Portland, namely within the sailing academy's neighbouring business estate.
The Osprey Leisure Centre is located in Castletown, which was formally known as the Boscawen Centre, where it was officially opened to the public at the beginning of May 2007. The centre includes a 25m Swimming Pool, a Cardio/Multi Gymnasium, Squash Courts and a Sports Hall, as well as a unisex Hairport Salon. Originally the fitness centre was built as a private Royal Navy facility during the 1980s, with access only to Navy-based employees and their own friends, until it was taken over by South Dorset Community Sports Trust in 2007. The centre was part of the navy project which also included the two large accommodation blocks opposite the site.
Between the Weymouth and Portland National Sailing Academy and Castletown lies the Portland Search and Rescue Helicopter base, also close to Portland Castle. In this area is also the now derelict Air Traffic Control building which was operated for use of the Royal Navy helicopters when they were based on the island. Before becoming the control administration building it was a canteen for the navy. Plans to turn it into housing has been made, and in July 2014 it was announced the building was at the centre of a £12 million homes plan being backed by the government. The Homes and Communities Agency (HCA) wants to attract interest in neglected parts of Osprey Quay that have yet to be redeveloped, including the building. The land has planning permission for self-catering apartments, a food store and an office building. The former canteen was originally earmarked for 39 flats and the land adjacent to the building was designated for a food superstore, self containing apartments and office buildings, but now the HCA want to change the planning consent so that 40 homes can be built on the land, which it hopes would make it more attractive to developers. Sutton Harbour had plans for a £30 million regeneration project at the former air station and although it completed some work on the Castle Court site, including the Royal Yachting Association (RYA) building at Portland House, it pulled out in 2008.
The Royal Naval Cemetery is also found above the harbour, honouring many servicemen associated with Portland's Harbour. Castletown also holds the Portland Community Hospital. This was originally a Royal Naval Hospital which served Portland's naval base from the late 19th century until 1957, when the hospital was handed over to the NHS.
Castletown's Stone Pier was where stone was shipping off from the quarries. During World War II, a light anti-aircraft gun emplacement was situated at the end of the pier.
Alongside the main road of Castletown, two large construction blocks are found on the right just into the entrance of the village. The blocks, totaling £25-30 million, were built as barracks/accommodation for the use of Royal Navy personnel in 1984, along with a swimming sports centre, now the Osprey Leisure Centre. The project was started after it was ensured the naval base at Portland would not close. However, they were only in use for a short time before the Royal Navy left Portland in 1995, causing the blocks to become a victim of vandalism once derelict. The buildings became stripped bare, and a little while into the new millennium, in 2003, plans were put forward by the Government to house 750 asylum seekers, but major negative response and widespread protests from the local area caused these plans to be withdrawn. Over 600 residents marched in opposition along the causeway between the island and the mainland. At the time the site was owned by Comer Homes who applied to build 363 flats in the block in October 2002.
In January 2003 a suspected arson attack at the proposed site was started after a public meeting was held by hundreds of campaigners protesting against plans to use the building to house refugees. The fire had been deliberately set in a former bar area on the ground floor of the seven-storey building. By February a local man appeared in court charged with racially-aggravated criminal damage in connection with the fire, to which he pleaded not guilty.
In 2006 brothers Luke and Brian Comer announced their plans to turn the barracks into luxury apartments via a £100 million scheme. Construction work began for the right block in 2007 and were largely completed by June 2008. The block, named Ocean Views, includes 554 apartments ranging from £169,000 to penthouses for £605,000. Reportedly, 2,500 inquiries for the apartments were made in only days after the apartments was publicised, however only 39 flats were initially sold. The Comer brothers ranked Portland as being one of their most important sites, where they also have sites located in New York, Belgium and London. The site features a private health and fitness club, swimming pool and a spa, sauna, steam room and jacuzzi for private residents.
The left block still remains derelict today, awaiting construction. After the completion of the first block, the Comer brothers made plans to prepare another block before developers Rossmark Properties, linked to the Comer Homes Group, went into administration during the recession and the land was taken over by the banks in 2011. The site was then purchased by Fulca Ltd, also part of Comer Homes, who in August 2014 expressed wish to restart the development, a mixture of converted accommodation and new-build flats. However the developer has said that new unforeseen costs to do with the condition of the site – including a multi-million pound bill for stabilising a slope – and a downturn in the housing market means it cannot afford to make any more developer obligations, and has requested that the Weymouth and Portland Borough Council remove the affordable housing obligations made in 2004 – providing 30 units to a housing association and a paying a sum to the council for homes off-site.
Grade listed features
Castletown has a wide array of architecture and buildings, a number of which are Grade Listed.
Portland Castle is within Castletown, and was designated as a Grade I Listed building in May 1993. It is one of three buildings on Portland to be Grade I Listed. Additionally, in October 1981, the castle had become scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. The Captain's House, not to be confused with the house at the bottom of Mallams near Fortuneswell and Chiswell, is a large detached house, adjoining Portland Castle. It was built between 1816 and 1835, on site of and partly incorporating walls of former outbuildings to the Castle. It was the Master Gunner's residence before it came into the Manning family in 1816, when it is assumed that the major reconstruction took place. The site was occupied until then by brewhouse, stable, and sutler's house. When the castle was opened to the public by English Heritage in 1951, the house was not a part of the attraction, as it was still home to the Captain to the neighbouring HMS Osprey. With the closure of the HMS Opsrey establishment, the house later became part of the attraction. It was designated a Grade II* Listed building in May 1993. The gateway and curtain wall to the south east of the house became Grade II* Listed at the same time. It was formerly part of the main enclosure of and access to the castle, and now gives access to the house. It dates from the mid-16th century and is a surviving section of a former curtain wall with moat.
Located around 23 metres (75 ft) south of the entrance to The Captain's House is a War Department/Admiralty boundary marker. Dating from 1870, it is one of many markers of its kind to be found on Portland, and this particular example has been Grade II Listed since May 1993.
The Royal Breakwater Hotel was designated Grade II in May 1993. The hotel, still operating as a commercial business, is a large complex building in three sections, dating from 1890-1910. It has a rich composition characteristic of turn-of-the-century design, with its main frontage facing the harbour unaltered. It is one of several hotels and inns which were built in the late 19th century to serve the Dockyard.
At the end of the village, closest to the point where Portland Port begins, is the former Dockyard Police Station. The MOD police station was initially a railway station, dating from around 1865. It was built to serve the naval base which was expended under Palmerston's administration in the 1860s. It has been Grade II Listed since May 1993.
- Morris, Stuart (1990). Portland Camera. Dovecote Press. pp. Photo 118. ISBN 978-0946159796.
- Morris, Stuart (1990). Portland Camera. Dovecote Press. pp. Photo 119. ISBN 978-0946159796.
- [dead link]
- Morris, Stuart (1985). Portland: An Illustrated History. Dovecote Press. p. 49. ISBN 978-0946159345.
- "Portlandbill.co.uk". Portlandbill.co.uk. 1939-10-11. Retrieved 26 June 2014.
- Morris, Stuart (1985). Portland: An Illustrated History. Dovecote Press. p. 89. ISBN 978-0946159345.
- Morris, Stuart (1985). Portland: An Illustrated History. Dovecote Press. p. 103. ISBN 978-0946159345.
- "Detailed Result: MONUMENT NO. 1413280". Pastscape. Retrieved 26 June 2014.
- "DIR and select hogarthian shopping - worldwide, shop based and online". Underwater Explorers. Retrieved 11 November 2012.
- "New HQ for care provider (From Dorset Echo)". Dorsetecho.co.uk. 2014-07-16. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
- "The Aqua - Three Star Accommodation on the Jurassic Coast". Hotelaqua.co.uk. Retrieved 11 November 2012.
- "Portland Roads Hotel, Dorset". www.PortlandRoadsHotel.co.uk. Retrieved 11 Ovtober 2012.
- "Portland Dorset". Royal Breakwater Hotel. Retrieved 11 October 2012.
- "The Green Shutters". The Green Shutters. Retrieved 11 October 2012.
- "'Eyesore' pub on Portland to become care home (From Dorset Echo)". Dorsetecho.co.uk. 1 May 2012. Retrieved 11 October 2012.
- "Osprey Leisure Centre - South Dorset Community Sports Trust". Ospreyleisure.co.uk. 1 May 2007. Retrieved 11 October 2012.
- "Osprey Leisure Centre - Facilities @ Osprey". Ospreyleisure.co.uk. Retrieved 11 October 2012.
- "Osprey Leisure Centre - Hairport". Ospreyleisure.co.uk. Retrieved 11 October 2012.
- "Osprey Leisure Centre | SDRN". Sd-research.org.uk. 25 June 2013. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
- "Portland Castle". Geoffkirby.co.uk. Retrieved 11 October 2012.
- "£12m bid to redevelop derelict naval building and land on Portland (From Dorset Echo)". Dorsetecho.co.uk. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
- "Detailed Result: MONUMENT NO. 1413296". Pastscape. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
- "Specifications & Features". Ocean-views.co.uk. Retrieved 11 October 2012.
- Irving, Lee. "Fresh move to restart island scheme - but affordable homes could be dropped (From Dorset Echo)". Dorsetecho.co.uk. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
- "1205262 - The National Heritage List for England | English Heritage". List.english-heritage.org.uk. 17 May 1993. Retrieved 26 June 2014.
- "1015326 - The National Heritage List for England | English Heritage". List.english-heritage.org.uk. Retrieved 26 June 2014.
- "1280817 - The National Heritage List for England | English Heritage". List.english-heritage.org.uk. 17 May 1993. Retrieved 26 June 2014.
- "1205280 - The National Heritage List for England | English Heritage". List.english-heritage.org.uk. 17 May 1993. Retrieved 26 June 2014.
- "1281849 - The National Heritage List for England | English Heritage". List.english-heritage.org.uk. Retrieved 26 June 2014.
- "1205310 - The National Heritage List for England | English Heritage". List.english-heritage.org.uk. 17 May 1993. Retrieved 26 June 2014.
- "Portland Dorset". Royal Breakwater Hotel. Retrieved 26 June 2014.
- "1203074 - The National Heritage List for England | English Heritage". List.english-heritage.org.uk. 17 May 1993. Retrieved 26 June 2014.
- "Detailed Result: PORTLAND STATION". Pastscape. Retrieved 26 August 2014.