Charles Goodnight

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Charles Goodnight
Goodnite.jpg
Goodnight in 1866
Born (1836-03-05)March 5, 1836
Macoupin County, Illinois, USA
Died December 12, 1929(1929-12-12) (aged 93)
Resting place
Goodnight Cemetery near Amarillo, Texas
Residence

(1) Pueblo, Colorado

(2) Clarendon, Donley County, Texas
Occupation Rancher
Religion Two by Twos Church
Spouse(s)

(1) Mary Ann Dyer Goodnight (married 1870-1926)

(2) Corinne Goodnight Goodnight (married 1927-1929, his death)
Children No children
Goodnight (ca. 1880)

Charles Goodnight, also known as Charlie Goodnight (March 5, 1836 – December 12, 1929), was a cattle rancher in the American West, perhaps the best known rancher in Texas. He is sometimes known as the "father of the Texas Panhandle." Essayist and historian J. Frank Dobie said that Goodnight "approached greatness more nearly than any other cowman of history."[1]

Early years[edit]

Goodnight was born in Macoupin County, Illinois, east of St. Louis, Missouri, the fourth child of Charles Goodnight and the former Charlotte Collier. (Goodnight's father's grave is located in a pasture south of Bunker Hill, Illinois.)

Goodnight moved to Texas in 1846 with his mother and stepfather, Hiram Daugherty. In 1856, he became a cowboy and served with the local militia, fighting against Comanche raiders. A year later, in 1857, Goodnight joined the Texas Rangers. Goodnight is also known for rousing and leading a posse against the Comanche in 1860 that located the Indian camp where Cynthia Ann Parker was living with her husband, Peta Nocona, then guiding Texas Rangers to the camp, leading to Cynthia Ann's recapture.[2] He later made a treaty with her son, Quanah Parker.

At the outbreak of the Civil War, he joined the Confederate States Army. Most of his time was spent as part of a frontier regiment guarding against raids by Indians.

Goodnight described what it took to become a scout, "First, he must be a born a natural woodsmen and have the faculty of never needing a compass except in snow storms or darkness."[3]

Cattle[edit]

The 2,000-mile Goodnight-Loving Trail extended from the Texas Panhandle and into Colorado as it headed north into Wyoming.
Charles Goodnight statue outside of the Panhandle-Plains Historical Museum at the West Texas A&M University campus

Following the war, he became involved in the herding of feral Texas Longhorn cattle northward from West Texas to railroads. This "making the gather" was a near state-wide round-up of cattle that had roamed free during the four long years of war. In 1866, he and Oliver Loving drove their first herd of cattle northward along what would become known as the Goodnight-Loving Trail. Early in the partnership with Loving, they pastured cattle at such sites as Capulin Mountain in northeastern New Mexico. Goodnight invented the chuckwagon, which was first used on the initial cattle drive. Upon arriving in New Mexico, they formed a partnership with New Mexico cattleman John Chisum for future contracts to supply the United States Army with cattle. After Loving's death, Goodnight and Chisum extended the trail from New Mexico to Colorado, and eventually to Wyoming. The Goodnight-Loving trail extended from Belknap, Texas, to Fort Sumner, New Mexico

Goodnight and Loving were close friends. Goodnight sat by Loving's bed during the two weeks it took the latter to die, and reportedly kept a photograph of Loving in his pocket long after his death, and later put a photograph on his desk. As requested by the dying Loving, Goodnight carried the body from New Mexico to Weatherford, the seat of Parker County, Texas, for burial.

In order to take advantage of available grass, timber, water, and game, he founded in 1876 what was to become the first Texas Panhandle ranch, the JA Ranch, in the Palo Duro Canyon[4] of the south Texas Panhandle. He partnered with the Irish businessman John George Adair to create the JA, which stands for "John Adair". In 1880, Goodnight was a founder of the Panhandle Stockman's Association. The organization sought to improve cattle-breeding methods and to reduce the threat of rustlers and outlaws. After Adair's death in 1885, Goodnight worked in partnership for a time with Adair's widow Cornelia Wadsworth Ritchie Adair.

He also developed an acquaintanceship with W. D. Twichell, who lived in Amarillo from 1890 to 1918 and surveyed 165 of the 254 Texas counties.[5]

After Goodnight had already left the JA, Tom Blasingame came to the ranch in 1918. Blasingame worked there most of the next seventy-three years, having, at the time of his death in 1989, become the oldest cowboy in the history of the American West.

Bison[edit]

In addition to raising cattle in 1876, the Goodnights preserved a herd of native plains bison that year, which is said to survive to this day in Caprock Canyons State Park. The herd in Caprock Canyons was actually donated by JA Ranch and there is no documentation demonstrating that this was the herd preserved by the Goodnights. Bison of this herd were introduced into the Yellowstone National Park in 1902 and into the larger zoos and ranches throughout the nation. He also crossbred the bison with domestic cattle, which he called cattalo. Charles "Buffalo" Jones, a co-founder of Garden City, Kansas, after meeting with Goodnight in Texas, also bred cattalo, or beefalo, on a ranch near Grand Canyon National Park in northern Arizona.[6]

Personal life[edit]

On July 26, 1870, Goodnight married Mary Ann "Molly" Dyer, a teacher from Weatherford, located west of Fort Worth. Goodnight developed a practical sidesaddle for Molly. Though he was not of his wife's denomination, Goodnight donated money to build a Methodist Church in Goodnight. He and Molly also established the Goodnight Academy to offer post-elementary education to hundreds of children of ranchers. For several years after their marriage the Goodnights resided in Pueblo, Colorado, where Goodnight had considerable financial success, having invested in real estate, buying town lots, and even becoming part owner of the opera house. The barn from Charles home west of the town of Pueblo on the Arkansas river is still standing and is on the National Register of Historic Places. Much of his money was invested in the Stock Growers Bank in Pueblo; locals there began referring to him by the title "Colonel".[7]

After Molly died in April 1926, Goodnight became ill himself. He was nourished back to health by a distant cousin, 26-year-old nurse and telegraph operator from Butte, Montana, named Corinne Goodnight, with whom Charles had been corresponding because of their shared surname.

On March 5, 1927, his ninety-first birthday, Goodnight married Corinne, whose name became Corinne Goodnight Goodnight. He joined her Two by Twos church and was baptized a few months before his death in Goodnight, Texas.[8] Evetts Haley had described Goodnight as "deeply religious and reverential by nature."[9]

In his younger years, Goodnight smoked some fifty cigars per day but switched to a pipe in his mature years. He never learned to read or write but had his wives write letters for him to various individuals, including Quanah Parker. During his last illness, he gave his gold Hampton pocket watch to his pastor, Ralph Blackburn.[9]

After he mastered ranching, Goodnight was involved in other activities, including the establishment of his Goodnight College in Armstrong County and working as a newspaperman and a banker. He lost his life's savings when the Mexican silver mine he invested in was nationalized by the Mexican government. He was forced to sell his ranch in 1919 to an oilman friend, W. J. McAlister, with the provision that Goodnight and his then first wife could stay in the home until they both died.[10]

He is buried next to his first wife, Mary Ann Goodnight, in Goodnight Cemetery near Amarillo, Texas.[11]

Goodnight House Restoration[edit]

External images
Charles Goodnight House, 1888

The Goodnight home is located one-quarter mile south of U.S. Highway 287 and about 40 miles east of Amarillo, Texas. The home was renovated by the Armstrong County Museum from 2006 to 2012.[12] The structure has been painted to resemble its appearance in 1887. The interior was restored based on research into the original paint and wallpapers used. The home and 30 acres were donated in 2005 by Amarillo businessman Brent Caviness and a partner. Goodnight’s first wife, Mary Ann, taught children from the area in the bunkhouse. She let the cowboys have it at night and moved their things aside for school during the day,” Goodin said.

Montie Goodin, a member of the museum board who was born in the Goodnight house in 1931, two years after Goodnight's death, said that Goodnight had no concept of his own importance: "It didn't matter who you were, he invited all in."[13]

The house, included in the National Register of Historic Places, had electricity and sheltered hundreds of ranch workers and cowboys over the years. Beginning in 2006, the Armstrong County Museum in Claude started raising money to restore the structure and make it the centerpiece of the Charles Goodnight Historical Center. Nearly $1.8 million has been raised, but another $600,000 is needed. Funds were contributed by several Amarillo-area philanthropies as well as fundraisers from the Texas Historical Foundation. The first phase of the restoration, which included work on the foundation, porches, roof, and exterior paint, has been completed. Goodin said that the next step will include interior painting and wallpapering. A small rope bed built by Adam Sheek, Goodnight's second stepfather, a minister and a furniture maker, will be placed in the house upon renovation. Ruth Robinson of Clarendon, the seat of Donley County, who is a great-great-niece of Goodnight's, donated the bed as well as her mother's Victorian bedroom set.[13] The house is schedule to open in April 2013.[12]

Reputation[edit]

Goodnight is generally presented as a good and decent man. Frank Dobie, who knew Goodnight, is quoted as saying "I have met a lot of good men, several fine gentlemen, hordes of cunning climbers, plenty of loud-braying asses and plenty of dumb oxen, but I haven't lived long enough or traveled far enough to meet more than two or three men I'd call great. This is a word I will not bandy around. To me, Charles Goodnight was great-natured." (Charles Goodnight: Father of the Texas Panhandle, William T Hagan)

There are other views. In TIME-LIFE's 1973 publication The Cowboys, the author states (p62): "Goodnight was no better than the rest. Once when his wife expressed shock at some vigilante hangings ("I understand," she exclaimed, "they hanged them to a telegraph pole!") Charlie replied quietly, "Well, I don't think it hurt the telegraph pole." What she didn't know was that the victims had actually been strung up with Goodnight's full approval."

The western-themed sculptor Grant Speed's depiction of Goodnight is housed in the Square House Museum in Panhandle, Texas. In 2010, another of Speed's sculptures of Goodnight sold at auction for $5,400.[14]

In literature[edit]

In 1935, six years after Goodnight's death, Laura Vernon Hamner, who knew Charles and Molly Goodnight from her time in Claude in Armstrong County, Texas, published a fictionalized biography of the cattleman entitled, The No-Gun Man of Texas.

Larry McMurtry's Pulitzer Prize-winning novel Lonesome Dove is a fictionalized account of Goodnight and Loving's third cattle drive. Woodrow F. Call represents Goodnight, Augustus McCrae is Oliver Loving. Though the characters have personalities rather different from their real-life counterparts, the novel borrows heavily from actual events, in particular Loving's ambush by Indians and Goodnight's attentive care as Loving died from an arrow-induced infection. Call returns McCrae's body to Texas, just as Goodnight returned Loving for burial in Weatherford, Texas. The marker that Call carves for Deets is based on an epitaph Charles Goodnight created for Bose Ikard, an ex-slave that worked alongside Goodnight most of his life.

All four "Lonesome Dove" novels include brief appearances by Goodnight. He plays his largest role in the final volume, Streets of Laredo. His appearance in the prequel Dead Man's Walk is historically inaccurate. The story takes place during the Santa Fe Expedition of 1841, when Goodnight would have been only five years old. Goodnight is played in Dead Man's Walk by Chris Penn, in Comanche Moon by Jeremy Ratchford and in Streets of Laredo by James Gammon.

The western novelist Matt Braun's novel Texas Empire is based on the life of Goodnight and fictionalizes the founding of the JA Ranch.

Mari Sandoz's Old Jules Country in the part "Some dedicated Men" relates the difficulties of Goodnight's cattle drives to Colorado [pages 171–175].

In James A. Michener's novel, Centennial, the Skimmerhorn Trail is based on the actual Goodnight-Loving Trail. In addition his name is mentioned in the novel; the character R. J. Poteet appears to have been based on Goodnight.

The Goodnight Trail is a novel by Ralph Compton.

Historians John Milton Price (born 1942) of Northwestern State University in Natchitoches, Louisiana, and Byron Price (born 1949), the director of the Charles M. Russell Center at the University of Oklahoma at Norman, will compile a book on Goodnight’s life. Entitled The Charles Goodnight Papers, the three-volume work will be published by the University of Oklahoma Press, of which Byron Price is also the director.[15] In November 2013, the two professors received a $50,000 grant from the Summerlee Foundation in Dallas to assist in the Goodnight project. John Price explains, "Our endeavor is an important addition to the historiography of the American West. It is a work of original source materials, photographs, letters, and documents – the lifeblood of this most important keystone of Western Americana."[16] John Price added that the study will focus on the last three years of Goodnight's life, which have been given little attention in other works.[16]

In music[edit]

The song The Goodnight-Loving Trail by Utah Phillips describes a chuckwagon cook on a cattle drive.

The West Texas songwriter Andy Wilkinson wrote "Charlie Goodnight: His Life in Poetry and Song". The CD was produced by Lloyd Maines of Lubbock, Texas.

Albertan Ian Tyson of Alberta, Canada, wrote a song "Charles Goodnight's Grave," about leaving bandannas near the Goodnight grave.

Namesakes[edit]

The following are named for Goodnight:

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Deborah Hedstrom-Page (2007). From Ranch to Railhead with Charles Goodnight. B&H Publishing Group. ISBN 0-8054-3272-8. 
  2. ^ S.C. Gwynne, Empire of the Summer Moon. New York: Scribner, 2010, pp. 173-175.
  3. ^ Goodnight, C., The Making of a Scout, manuscript, Panhandle Plains Historical Museum, Canyon, Texas
  4. ^ Texas State, Historical Commission. "Charles Goodnight Historical Marker, Armstrong County, Tx". Retrieved 2008-10-10. 
  5. ^ "Oral History Collection". Texas Tech University, Southwest Collection/Special Collections Library. Retrieved May 3, 2011. 
  6. ^ "Buffalo Jones". h-net.msu.edu. Retrieved September 4, 2010. 
  7. ^ William T. Hagan, "Charles Goodnight: Father of the Texas Panhandle", (Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 2007), p. 24
  8. ^ Kropp, Cherie (6 January 2009). "Col. Charles Goodnight". Telling The Truth. Archived from the original on 18 March 2010. Retrieved 18 March 2010. 
  9. ^ a b Charles Goodnight exhibit, Panhandle-Plains Historical Museum, Canyon, Texas
  10. ^ Welch, Kevin. "Renovation winds down at historic Goodnight cattle ranch". Amarillo Globe News. Retrieved 9 September 2012. 
  11. ^ Find-A-Grave: Charles Goodnight
  12. ^ a b "The Charles Goodnight Historical Center". Retrieved 9 September 2012. 
  13. ^ a b Berzanskis, Cheryl (July 17, 2009). "Museum works to restore Goodnight's home". Amarillo Globe-News. 
  14. ^ "2010 March Auction". altermann.com. Retrieved June 25, 2011. 
  15. ^ "Byron Price". goodnightheritage.com. Retrieved November 26, 2013. 
  16. ^ a b "Northwestern State professor part of team awarded grant to study famous cattle rancher, November 25, 2013". Alexandria Daily Town Talk. Retrieved November 26, 2013. 
  17. ^ Waggoners Win Charles Goodnight Award

References[edit]

  • Charles Goodnight: Cowman and Plainsman, by J. Evetts Haley, with illustrations by Harold Dow Bugbee
  • Charles Goodnight: Father of the Texas Panhandle, by William T. Hagen
  • Texas Ranchmen, by Dorothy Abbott McCoy
  • The New Handbook of Texas, Texas State Historical Association
  • Family History, by Mark Tracy Sheek
  • AJ Edward, a former resident of Canyon, Texas
  • JA Ranch Records, Southwest Collection/Special Collections Library, Texas Tech University at Lubbock, Texas

External links[edit]