Northwest escarpment of the Llano Estacado
|State||New Mexico Texas|
|- elevation||1,500 m (4,921 ft)|
|- elevation||910 m (2,986 ft)|
|Length||400 km (249 mi)|
|Width||240 km (149 mi)|
|Area||97,000 km2 (37,452 sq mi)|
Shaded relief image of the Llano Estacado. The escarpments marking the eastern edge of the Llano are visible, running roughly in a north-south line through the middle of the Panhandle. The western edge is on the New Mexico side of the border, with the Texas-New Mexico border running somewhat closer to the western edge of the Llano than to the eastern.
|Website: Handbook of Texas: Llano Estacado|
Llano Estacado (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈʝano estaˈkaðo], (meaning Palisaded Plain), commonly known as the Staked Plain, is a region in the Southwestern United States that encompasses parts of eastern New Mexico and northwestern Texas. One of the largest mesas or tablelands on the North American continent, the elevation rises from 3,000 feet (900 m) in the southeast to over 5,000 feet (1,500 m) in the northwest, sloping almost uniformly at about 10 feet per mile (1.9 m/km). At such a gradual slope, however, the elevation change is imperceptible to the human observer.
Geography and climate 
The Llano Estacado lies at the southern end of the High Plains section of the Great Plains of North America; it is part of what was once called the Great American Desert. The Canadian River forms the Llano's northern boundary, separating it from the rest of the High Plains. To the east, the Caprock Escarpment, a precipitous cliff about 300 feet (100 m) high, lies between the Llano and the red Permian plains of Texas; while to the west, the Mescalero Escarpment demarcates the edge of the Pecos River valley. The Llano has no natural southern boundary, instead blending into the Edwards Plateau near Big Spring, Texas. This geographic area stretches about 250 miles (400 km) north to south, and 150 miles (240 km) east to west, a total area of some 37,500 square miles (97,000 km2), larger than Indiana and 12 other states. It covers all or part of 33 Texas counties and four New Mexico counties.
Spanish conquistador Francisco Coronado, the first European to traverse this "sea of grass" in 1541, described it as follows: "I reached some plains so vast, that I did not find their limit anywhere I went, although I travelled over them for more than 300 leagues ... with no more land marks than if we had been swallowed up by the sea ... there was not a stone, nor bit of rising ground, nor a tree, nor a shrub, nor anything to go by."
After his 1852 expedition to explore the headwaters of the Red and Colorado Rivers, General Randolph Marcy agreed: "[not] a tree, shrub, or any other herbage to intercept the vision... the almost total absence of water causes all animals to shun it: even the Indians do not venture to cross it except at two or three places." The landscape is, however, dotted by numerous small playa lakes, depressions that seasonally fill with water and provide important habitat for waterfowl. As the Spanish word estancado means "stagnant" (water), a growing number of geographers and geoscience researchers from Texas Tech University are considering that the region was originally named Llano Estancado for these lakes.
The Llano Estacado has an arid climate (Köppen BWh), characterized by long, hot summers and cold winters. Rainfall is extremely low; the entire region receives fewer than 23 inches (580 mm) of rainfall annually, and the western part receives as little as 14 inches (360 mm). High summer temperatures (average July temperature above 85 °F or 29 °C) mean that most of the small amount of precipitation is lost to evaporation, making dry-land farming extremely difficult.
Wind turbines on the windswept Llano Estacado
History and name 
||This section needs additional citations for verification. (October 2012)|
Coronado named the region after seeing the cliffs of the Caprock Escarpment from the north on his way east from Cíbola. They appeared to be an impenetrable defense for the land, and he called it Llano Estacado, Spanish for "Palisaded Plain." The name of the region has historically been widely known as the "staked plain," giving rise to several stories to explain it. Some allude to yucca stems, others to stakes driven into the ground as landmarks used to course across the flat, featureless region, and others to the mis transformed Spanish word estancado which means "stagnant" (water).
While traveling across the great plain in 1541 Coronado wrote:
"I reached some plains so vast I did not find their limit anywhere that I went, although I traveled over them for more than 300 leagues .... with no more land marks than if we had been swallowed up by the sea. ... [T]here was not a stone, nor bit of rising ground, nor a treee, nor a shrub, nor anything to go by."
When Coronado first traveled across the plains he wrote of traveling for great distance upon the barren flat country. His only written account did not contain one reference to the several thousands of obvious playa lakes he would have had to pass around. These playa lakes are stagnant enclosures of rainfall runoff of less than an acre up to several miles in size. This significant missing geographic detail in the Coronado record, leads a growing number of geographers, researchers and authors[who?] to wonder if the region was originally named Llano Estancado for the presence of these lakes. The possibility that the 'stagnant' naming would hinder development of the region in the late 1800s is increasingly considered. That Coronado's history was 'tweaked' by citing a more inviting name for economic development of the region is currently the most popular reasoning for naming this region of the Great Southern Plains. However, these speculations are unproven.
The conquistadors reintroduced horses to the Great Plains since their extinction in North America eons earlier. Some horses escaped and bred in the wild. The Native American tribes of the Plains captured horses and integrated them into their cultures in the succeeding centuries. Having horses allowed them to expand their territories and hunting grounds. Before this, the dog was their largest domesticated animal.
In the early 18th century, the Comanches expanded their territory into the Llano Estacado, displacing the Apaches who had previously lived there. The region became part of the Comancheria, a Comanche stronghold until the final defeat of the tribe in the late 19th century.
In the latter part of the 19th century, the Llano was a refuge for the bands of Kiowas and Comanches who did not wish to be confined to reservations in Indian Territory, in present-day Oklahoma. One of their last battles against the US Army was fought on 2 December 1874 in Palo Duro Canyon. In this region of minimal water, it was very difficult for the U.S. Cavalry to function. The Native Americans could disappear into the slight draws of the featureless expanse, or into the labyrinths of canyons such as Palo Duro.
Human population 
||This section needs additional citations for verification. (October 2012)|
Because of its difficult conditions, the Llano Estacado has an extremely low population density. Most of the area's population is localized in the principal cities of Amarillo, Lubbock, Midland and Odessa, Texas. The vast majority of the area is rural, covered by large ranches and irrigated farms. Several small- to medium-sized towns do exist, however, including Andrews, Hereford, Plainview, Levelland, and Lamesa, Texas, and Clovis, Portales, and Hobbs, New Mexico.
The Llano Estacado is slightly larger in area than the state of Indiana. The southern extension of the High Plains, the region is some 250 miles north to south and 200 miles east to west. The roads are straight and meet mostly at right angles. Cotton is an essential crop with irrigation, but faces declining prices at times on the world market. The Llano Estacado is sometimes humorously described as "85 percent sky and 15 percent grassland."
For years, the Llano Estacado was isolated from the state government in Austin and the national leadership in Washington, D.C.,[clarification needed] though powerful lawmakers, such as George H. Mahon, Kent Hance, and Robert L. Duncan emerged to defend its interests. The area has a large number of churches per capita. Lubbock, known for a wide variety of denominations, also holds the distinction of being the most populous city on the High Plains from the Dakotas through Texas. Prohibition did not end on the Texas Plains in 1933 with repeal of the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, but continued for years at the county level. Even in 2010, some forty Texas counties, most in the Llano Estacado, remain officially "dry" to the sale of alcohol.
Map of Texas counties with population density
Lubbock, Texas, the largest city on the Llano
A shot of downtown Amarillo, Texas
Midland, "The Tall City" of West Texas
||This section needs additional citations for verification. (October 2012)|
The Ogallala Group is a late Neogene (Pliocene) sheet of sediments spread over the area east of the Rocky Mountains from Wyoming to Texas, rather recently in a geological sense, when the Colorado Plateau and Rocky Mountain regions were elevated from near sea level to about their current elevations. The eroded sediments (mainly earlier Cenozoic rocks) spread over the low plains to the east. The Ancestral Rocky Mountains had been formed much earlier, at the end of the Cretaceous Period and the beginning of the Cenozoic era, and had been worn down to near flatness before the Neogene uplift. In the northern areas, the Ogallala was spread over Paleogene and Cretaceous rocks. In the Llano Estacado, erosion had removed everything down to the Triassic, and even to the Permian redbeds. At the southern end, some Cretaceous limestone remained, however. The Ogallala was laid down over all of this by lazy, sandy streams near sea level, which produced the flatness of its surface. Subsequently, the uplift in the west progressed to the east, raising and tilting the Ogallala surface to its present position, and changing the environment from depositional to erosional. Some major rivers, such as the Pecos and Canadian, incised their courses deeply as the region was elevated, while others, such as the Red, Brazos, and Colorado rivers, arose on the dip slope. The erosion of these rivers has now defined the area of the Llano Estacado, separating it from its Rocky Mountain sources and from other parts of the High Plains.
Other areas of the Ogallala surface, or High Plains, have the same history. In Wyoming, it is still in contact with the mountains west of Cheyenne (the "Gangplank"), but elsewhere it is separated from the mountains by valleys of Cretaceous and earlier rocks due to active erosion at these higher levels. Only in the Llano Estacado area has the formation of the Caprock given rise to a prominent, distinctive, palisade-like escarpment, as well as to a remarkably flat surface. Further north, rivers such as the Platte, Arkansas, and Cimarron have sliced it into segments.
Another distinctive characteristic is that the surrounding rocks are often red, as in Palo Duro Canyon, making a striking contrast with the light-colored rocks of the plateau. In some other places, the erosional edge of the High Plains is marked by "breaks" or other abrupt changes of scenery, as in eastern Wyoming and western Nebraska. In these areas, the High Plains are usually sandy, rolling plains with normal, branching drainage, not flat surfaces without continuous streams.
The "bedrock" of the plain is the indurated top of the Ogallala Group, a hard caliche layer called the Caprock. This was formed when surface drying caused mineral-laden water to rise by capillary action to the surface. Evaporating, the minerals were left behind to cement the otherwise fairly loose sandy sediments of the Ogallala Group. The Caprock is generally covered by sands and soils. Where soils predominate, the land is fertile when irrigated, and is devoted to field crops, including grain and cotton. Irrigation water is mined from the deeper parts of the Ogallala Group by electric pumps, since there is almost no usable surface water. As the pumped water is being used much more rapidly than it is replenished, eventually Llano farmers will be forced to employ dryland cropping systems or return the area to its natural state of sparse grassland.
Monument Spring, a permanent oasis not far from Hobbs, New Mexico, was one of the rare watering places in the early days of the region's settlement. The "monument" was a pile of caliche raised by Native Americans to guide people to the spot. Because of the lack of surface water, low rainfall, and the harsher climate, the Llano was one of the last areas to be settled and farmed by European Americans in contemporary Texas. Better well-drilling technology by the late 1910s to 1920s was responsible for the maintenance and growth of many oil caprock towns.
When we were upon the high table-land, a view presented itself as boundless as the ocean. Not a tree, shrub, or any other object, either animate or inantimate, relieved the dreary monotony of the prospect; it was a vast-illimitable expanse of desert prairie .... the great Sahara of North America. it is a region almost as vast and trackless as the ocean -- a land where no man, either savage or civilized permanently abides ... a treeless, desolate waste of uninhabitable solitude, which always has been, and must continue uninhabited forever.
Overuse of the aquifer in the past has persuaded some farmers to return to dryland crops, leading to less rainwater reaching the playas.
The Llano Estacado is one of the largest cotton-producing regions of the United States. One of the largest economic drivers on the Llano Estacado is in energy production, with the region experiencing significant activity for producing oil and natural gas. Additionally, wind farms have proliferated on the Llano Estacado due to the region's windy climate making it a favorable location for the production of wind energy. Cattle ranching is also common on the Llano Estacado.
See also 
- Llano Estacado Winery is a winery located near Lubbock, Texas.
- "El Llano Estacado" is a traditional folk song adapted by Tom Russell.
- Art Leatherwood. "Llano Estacado". Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved 28 October 2007-10-28.
- What Does "Llano Estacado" Mean? About.com, 2010-05-12.
- Wendorf, F., 1961. Paleoecology of the Llano Estacado, Vol. 1, Santa Fe: NM, The Museum of New Mexico Press, Fort Burgwin Research Center Publication
- 300 Spanish leagues ≈ 780 mi or 1,255 km
- Hämäläinen, Pekka (2008). The Comanche Empire. Yale University Press. pp. 36–37, 334–339. ISBN 978-0-300-12654-9. Online at Google Books
- Stephen D. Bogener, West Texas A&M University, "High and Dry on the Llano Estacado: Religion, Morality, Alcohol on the High Plains", West Texas Historical Association annual meeting in Fort Worth, Texas, February 26, 2010
- William T. Hagan, Charles Goodnight: Father of the Texas Panhandle (Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 2007), pp. 30-31
- Playa Lakes United States Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved: 2012-10-15.