Choline chloride

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Choline chloride
Choline chloride
Identifiers
CAS number 67-48-1 YesY
PubChem 522265
ChemSpider 5974 YesY
UNII 45I14D8O27 YesY
ChEBI CHEBI:133341 N
ChEMBL CHEMBL282468 N
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Properties
Molecular formula C5H14ClNO
Molar mass 139.62 g mol−1
Appearance White or deliquescent crystals
Melting point 302 °C (576 °F; 575 K) (decomposes)
Solubility in water very soluble (>650 g/l)[1]
Hazards
MSDS External MSDS
NFPA 704
Flammability code 0: Will not burn. E.g., water Health code 2: Intense or continued but not chronic exposure could cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury. E.g., chloroform Reactivity code 0: Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water. E.g., liquid nitrogen Special hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
 N (verify) (what is: YesY/N?)
Infobox references

Choline chloride is an organic compound and a quaternary ammonium salt. It has a choline cation with chloride anion. Alternative names are hepacholine, biocolina and lipotril.

Synthesis[edit]

In the laboratory choline can be prepared by methylation of dimethylethanolamine with methyl chloride.

In the industrial Davy Process Technology route choline chloride is produced from ethylene oxide, hydrochloric acid, and trimethylamine,[2] or from the pre-formed salt:[3]

Synthesis of choline chloride.png

Applications[edit]

Choline chloride is mass-produced and is an important additive in feed especially for chickens where it accelerates growth. With urea it forms a deep eutectic solvent. Other commercial choline salts are choline hydroxide and choline bitartrate. In foodstuffs the compound is often present as phosphatidylcholine. It is also used as an additive in fluids used for hydraulic fracturing.[4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Chemical Safety Information from Intergovernmental Organizations - Choline Chloride". 
  2. ^ Davy Process Technology
  3. ^ "Choline chloride". Screening Information Data Set (SIDS) for High Production Volume Chemicals. IPCS INCHEM. 
  4. ^ "What Chemicals Are Used". FracFocus. Retrieved 19 September 2014.