Fixed non-existent wikilink, and added bare(URL)-inline tag[bare URL]
September 24, 1978 |
Arlington Heights, Illinois
|Professional wrestling career|
|Ring name(s)||Chris Harvard
Chip Champski[unreliable source]
Chris Harvey[unreliable source]
Harvard Chris[unreliable source]
|Billed height||6 ft 5 in (1.96 m)|
|Billed weight||270 lb (120 kg)|
|Trained by||Al Snow
Killer Kowalski[unreliable source]
|Debut||June 29, 2001[unreliable source]|
|Retired||June 24, 2003[unreliable source]|
Christopher John Nowinski (born September 24, 1978) is an American author and a former professional wrestler with World Wrestling Entertainment. Nowinski is renowned for being WWE's first Harvard alumnus, as he graduated with an BA in sociology. He is also recognized as the youngest Hardcore Champion in WWE history. Following his wrestling career, he wrote Head Games: Football's Concussion Crisis, which examined the long-term effects of head trauma among athletes, and also became a documentary.
Professional wrestling career
Tough Enough circuit and independent work (2001)
Nowinski was one of the three finalists on WWE's first series of Tough Enough, which Maven Huffman won. After failing to win the competition, Nowinski made appearances in independent promotions before finally being hired by WWE and entering its developmental territories.
Nowinski competed as Chris Harvard, capitalizing on his status as an alumnus of Harvard University. Nowinski made his first major independent appearance in London, UK for the Frontier Wrestling Alliance promotion at its Lights Camera Action show on December 14, 2001. Nowinski competed in its main event teaming up with Alex Shane to defeat Drew McDonald and Flash Barker.[bare URL][unreliable source] Though this was the only show Nowinski did for the promotion, he regards it as the best promotion he has ever worked for outside of WWE.[third-party source needed]
World Wrestling Entertainment (2002–2003)
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On June 10, 2002, episode of Raw, Nowinski debuted in WWE, helping William Regal beat Bradshaw in a European Championship match. Nowinski would have a short-lived alliance with Regal, defeating Spike Dudley in his debut match the following week with Regal in his corner. Nowinski would team with Regal on June 24 episode of Raw, defeating Bradshaw and Dudley. Nowinski would continue to feud with Bradshaw over the next few weeks, with their feud ending on July 8 episode of Raw, where Nowinski teamed with Jackie Gayda in a losing effort against Bradshaw and Trish Stratus. Nowinski would feud with The Dudleys (Bubba Ray Dudley and Spike Dudley) through the summer.
Nowinski would enter a feud with Tommy Dreamer on September 9 episode of Raw, where Nowinski would defeat Dreamer. A week later, Dreamer would attack Nowinski in a classroom. Their feud would end on October 14 episode of Raw, where Nowinski was once again successful in defeating Dreamer. Over the next few weeks, Nowinski would get victories over Jeff Hardy and Booker T before starting a feud with his former Tough Enough trainer, Al Snow. After defeating Snow in two consecutive weeks, Maven would begin to help Snow against Nowinski. On November 25 episode of Raw, Nowinski went against Maven in a match that ended in a no contest. Nowinski would team with D'Lo Brown, where they would defeat Snow and Maven on two occasions. Nowinski would then continue his feud with Maven into 2003, where Test would align himself with Maven for a few weeks, successfully defeating Nowinski and Brown on January 13, 2003 episode of Raw.
At the Royal Rumble pay-per-view, Nowinski would participate in the Royal Rumble match itself as the number three entrant, where he was eliminated by Rey Mysterio. On January 26 episode of Raw, Nowinski would interrupt a match between John Hennigan and Matt Cappotelli, the winners of the third season of Tough Enough, telling them to stop rubbing their victory in his face. Nowinski would then be chased through the crowd by Tommy Dreamer.
On March 31 episode of Raw, Nowinski would begin a feud with Scott Steiner in a losing effort. The feud come to an end on 12 May episode of Raw, where Nowinski teamed with La Résistance (Rene Dupree and Sylvain Grenier) in a losing effort against Steiner, Test and Goldust. On 26 May episode of Raw, Nowinski would align himself with Thuggin' And Buggin' Enterprises, an African American wrestling stable consisting of Rodney Mack, Jazz and their manager Theodore Long. At Insurrection, Nowinski would team with Mack and Long in a losing effort against The Dudley Boyz (Bubba Ray Dudley, Devon Dudley and Spike Dudley). At Bad Blood, Nowinski and Mack would defeat The Dudley Boyz (Bubba Ray and Devon). Nowinski would wrestle his final match with WWE, due to him suffering with post-concussion syndrome, on June 23 episode of Raw, in a losing effort against Maven. After a full year of post-concussion symptoms he chose to retire from wrestling.
On December 12, 2005 episode of Raw, Nowinski returned to the WWE, telling Vince McMahon that he should make the new General Manager of Raw a "Harvard Graduate", referring to himself.
In October 2006, Nowinski released a book, Head Games: Football's Concussion Crisis, which details his career-ending injury and discusses the dangers of concussions in football and other contact sports; the book includes stories from National Football League (NFL) players and fellow wrestlers, and has an introduction written by former governor of Minnesota and professional wrestler, Jesse Ventura. Later in that year, Nowinski initiated an inquiry into the suicide of Andre Waters, a 44-year old former NFL defensive back who shot himself on November 20, 2006. Waters had sustained several concussions over his career, and at Nowinski's behest, Waters' family agreed to send pieces of his brain to be tested. Bennet Omalu, a pathologist at the University of Pittsburgh announced that "the condition of Waters' brain tissue was what would be expected in an 85-year-old man, and there were characteristics of someone being in the early stages of Alzheimer's."
Nowinski played an integral role in the discovery of the fourth case of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in a former NFL football player, former Pittsburgh Steelers offensive lineman Justin Strzelczyk, who was killed in a fiery automobile crash in 2004 at age 36 after a 37-mile police chase at speeds up to 100 miles per hour on the wrong side of the highway. Julian Bailes, the chairman of the department of neurosurgery at West Virginia University and the Steelers' team neurosurgeon during Strzelczyk's career, insisted to Nowinski over a phone conversation that he thought Strzelczyk's death, which was precipitated by strange behavior that some had labeled as "bipolar", was worth looking into due to its similarities to the Andre Waters case. Nowinski contacted Omalu, who discovered the brain was still available, and Nowinski called Mary Strzelczyk, Justin's mother, to ask for permission to Omalu to examine it for CTE. Omalu's positive diagnosis was confirmed by two other neuropathologists.
Nowinski also collaborated with Ted Johnson, former New England Patriots linebacker, on symptoms of concussions after Johnson (who received over half a dozen concussions in his career) retired from the NFL after much controversy. Johnson was commissioned to write the foreword in Nowinski's book but at the last minute decided to pull what he had written.
Nowinski alerted police and the coroner of Chris Benoit, asking them to do a brain exam on Benoit's brain to see if concussions had any part in his rage or depression at the time of the double-homicide of his family and his suicide. In June 2007, Nowinski co-founded the Sports Legacy Institute, an organization dedicated to furthering awareness of and research on sports-related head injuries, and increasing the safety of contact and collision sports worldwide. Nowinski's work was documented on ESPN's Outside the Lines on September 5, 2007. On the same day, Benoit's brain examination report showed extensive damage due to concussions that could have led to dementia. To further the Sports Legacy Institute's mission, the Sports Legacy Institute and Michael Benoit, Chris' father, have started the Benoit Family Fund for Brain Injury Research.[third-party source needed]
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|This section may rely excessively on sources too closely associated with the subject, preventing the article from being verifiable and neutral. (August 2014)|
Since Nowinski's departure from WWE and the publication of his book Head Games, he has garnered a significant amount of media attention, making numerous appearances on networks such as ESPN and CNN to discuss sports-related head injuries. Nowinski continues to work as a consultant for Trinity Partners while serving as president on the board of directors for the Sports Legacy Institute (SLI).[third-party source needed] SLI was founded on June 14, 2007 in Boston, Massachusetts by Nowinski and Dr. Robert Cantu in reaction to new medical research indicating brain trauma in sports had become a public health crisis. Dr. Cantu wrote the foreword in a 2012 update of Head Games to accompany the release of the documentary of the same name. Postmortem analysis of the brain tissue of former contact sports athletes was revealing that repetitive brain injuries, both concussions and subconcussive blows, could lead to the neurodegenerative disease chronic traumatic encephalopathy. In addition, an absence of awareness and education on concussions, specifically proper diagnosis and management, was allowing the disease to proliferate. Finally, with brain trauma becoming the signature injury of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, this research/education model could also be applied to the military.
SLI,[third-party source needed] according to Nowinski, was founded to solve this concussion crisis in sports and the military through medical research, treatment, and education & prevention. The initial vision of SLI was to formalize neuropathological research and develop and treatment, via partnership with a top-tier university medical school. To that end, SLI began such a partnership with Boston University School of Medicine (BUSM) in September 2008, collaborating in formation of its Center for the Study of Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE Center). Subsequently, SLI has sought to develop ways to raise awareness of the issue and to directly educate coaches, athletes and parents. In 2009, SLI created a Coaches Concussion Clinic program. The SLI has been featured in articles in the The New York Times, on news programs such as 60 Minutes and Frontline, and has appeared in various segments on CNN, ESPN, and other networks.
The stated mission of the SLI,[third-party source needed] is to "advance the study, treatment and prevention of the effects of brain trauma in athletes and other at-risk groups".[third-party source needed] Nowinski is a co-director at the CTE Center of BUSM, where he works closely with Ann McKee, M.D., and other center experts (see below), as a liaison making contact with athletes and families of deceased athletes, to further case studies that examine brain tissues impacted by CTE. Nowinski also makes public speaking appearances at schools and conferences, and occasionally, before audiences of medical professionals.[third-party source needed]
Nowinski's work on concussion research has led him to act as a spokesperson for his fellow experts at the CTE Center of BUSM (e.g., M.D./Ph.D. faculty members Robert Cantu, Ann McKee, Robert A. Stern, and Lee Goldstein); in this role he provides a voice for the field of concussion-related research and awareness. He continues to be an outspoken voice advocating against the dangers of sports related head injuries, with numerous television and newspaper interviews. The work being done at the SLI has been featured on 60 Minutes. Nowinski appeared on Stan Lee's Superhumans as a non-medical expert on concussions. Hockey News listed Nowinski on its 2011 edition of the 100 Most Powerful people in ice hockey as one of the Top 40 under the age of 40. This recognition was attributed to his ability in getting hockey players to donate brain tissue after death.
- Finishing moves
Championships and accomplishments
- Wrestling Observer Newsletter awards
- Worst Worked Match of the Year (2002) with Jackie Gayda vs.Bradshaw and Trish Stratus on Raw on July 7
- "Chris Nowinski". Online World of Wrestling.
- "Cagematch profile".[unreliable source]
- Show database from CageMatch.net. Retrieved 24/11/06
- Ask Chris Questions. Cache from ChrisHarvard.net. Retrieved 19/10/06
- 2004 Ask Chris Questions (December 21, 2004). From ChrisHarvard.net. Retrieved 24/11/06
- "Dead athletes' brains show damage from concussions". CNN. January 27, 2009.
- "Pathologist says Waters' brain tissue had deteriorated".
- Schwarz, Alan (January 18, 2007). "Expert Ties Ex-Player's Suicide to Brain Damage". The New York Times.
- "Lineman dead at 36".
- Schwarz, Alan (June 15, 2007). "Lineman, Dead at 36, Exposes Brain Injuries". The New York Times.
- Finder, Chuck (October 31, 2004). "What drove Justin Strzelczyk to his death?". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette.
- MacMullan, Jackie (February 2, 2007). "I don't want anyone to end up like me". The Boston Globe.
- Brenda Goodman (June 26, 2007). "Wrestler Killed Wife and Son, Then Himself". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-06-26.
- "About". Retrieved 2010-09-17.
- "A Blow to the Brain". CBS News. October 11, 2009. Retrieved 2009-10-22.
- Hockey News, vol. 64, no. January 14, 17, 2011, p. 25
- "Managers".[unreliable source]
- "WWE Hardcore Championship history".
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Christopher Nowinski.|
- Sports Legacy Institute
- Official website
- Online World of Wrestling profile
- PBS Frontline "League of Denial" extended interview