British Rail Class 395
|British Rail Class 395|
395008 at Ebbsfleet International in 2009
The interior of a Class 395 MSO vehicle
|In service||29 June 2009 - Current|
|Built at||Kasado factory|
|Family name||A Train|
|Number built||29 trainsets|
|Fleet numbers||395001 - 395029|
|Capacity||340 seats + 12 tip up|
|Car body construction||aluminium|
|Train length||121.3 m (398 ft 0 in)|
|Width||2.81 m (9 ft 3 in)|
|Height||3.817 m (12 ft 6 in)|
|Floor height||1.235 m (4 ft 1 in)|
|Maximum speed||High Speed 1: 225 km/h (140 mph)
Network Rail: 100 mph (160 km/h)
|Weight||265 tonnes (261 long tons; 292 short tons) (empty)|
|Power output||16 x 210 kW (traction)
3 x 110 kW (auxiliary, 3-phase AC + 110V DC)
|Deceleration||0.90 m/s2 (1.20 m/s2 emergency)|
|Electric system(s)||25kV AC, 750V DC|
|Bogies||2.6 m (8 ft 6 in) wheelbase|
|Safety system(s)||TVM430, AWS, TPWS, KVB|
|Track gauge||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge|
|Sources: except where noted|
The 6-car trains were built in Japan by Hitachi and are capable of running at a maximum speed of 140 mph (225 km/h) under 25kV AC overhead electrification on High Speed 1, and 100 mph (161 km/h) on 750V DC third rail supply on conventional lines.
The use of the high-speed trains as part of the transport infrastructure for the Olympic park formed part of the original bid for the 2012 Summer Olympics. The service was named the Olympic Javelin Shuttle, and the name Javelin has become a common name for the trains. The Olympic services began 28 July 2012.
In December 2003 formal approval was given to run domestic services on the planned Channel Tunnel Rail Link (CTRL) in Kent, England, Preliminary consultations for a new franchise including the CTRL, and rolling stock to operate the 'CTRL Domestic' services were to begin in 2004, In 2005 the proposed high-speed services were combined with those from the former South Eastern Passenger Rail Franchise to form the Integrated Kent Franchise (IKF).
In October 2004 Hitachi was announced to be the preferred bidder to supply high-speed trains for the 'CTRL Domestic' services, and in June 2005 the £250 million contract was signed with Hitachi Europe Ltd as supplier of 28 trainsets, with HSBC Rail acting as financier (ROSCO), and with an expected in service date of 2009. In November 2005 the Department for Transport announced Govia as the new operator of the IKF.
The contract was Hitachi's first rail vehicle sold to a UK or European customer. It had previously worked with HSBC Rail and UK rail authorities between 2002 and 2003 to demonstrate the suitability and conformance of Hitachi's traction system with the UK rail network, including test of the use of AC induction motors, and Electromagnetic compatibility tests.[note 1]
Construction of the CTRL was complete in November 2007. By 2008 the initially planned 'CTRL Domestic' services (2003) from London St Pancras to Gravesend, and Canterbury West and Folkestone Central via Ashford had been expanded in scope to include services to Medway Towns, East Kent and Dover.
Maintenance depots and training 
The contract for the trains included maintenance of the trains; a consortium ('DEPCO') including HSBC Rail (finance), Fitzpatrick Contractors Ltd (construction), RPS Burks Green (architects/civil engineers), EMCOR UK (mechanical and electrical plant) and GrantRail (trackwork) constructed a new maintenance depot building at Ashford and the updating of the existing depot site. The Ashford train depot was formally opened on 2 October 2007, constructed on the site of the Ashford Down Yard Carriage Sidings;[note 2] the facility included a five track train shed with bogie drop made by BBM and train lifting equipment from Mechan. A second building housed a wheel lathe from Sculfort. Other facilities included carriage washing plant, a 25kV OHL test track, and sidings for rolling stock.
A Class 395 train simulator supplied by Corys TESS was acquired for use at the Southeastern's training centre in Ashford for driver training, Southeastern's co-parent company SNCF also assisted with high-speed driver training.
The DEPCO consortium also updated another existing depot at Ramsgate (see Ramsgate train depot) for the IKF with facilities including storage sidings for the Class 395 trains and light maintenance facilities.
Testing and preview service 
Pre-shipping factory tests included static and dynamic load tests, traction and braking tests including tests on a 750V DC third rail system specially installed at Hitachi's test track.
The first train was delivered from Japan to Southampton Docks on 23 August 2007. Homologation testing was undertaken by Serco, SNCF International assisted with testing of KVB and TVM 430 signalling systems, with speeds of 240 km/h (150 mph) attained in January 2008. After successful testing of four units (delivered by March 2008) shipping of the main production tranche began in December 2008. The final three trains of 29 arrived in the UK in August 2009, with the final train delivered to Southeastern on 11 December 2009.
The performance metric of 4,000 miles fault free running was achieved six months ahead of schedule, allowing a 'preview' service to be offered by June 2009 between London St Pancras and Ashford via Ebbsfleet, allowing further train testing, which achieved a 99% punctuality rate in the first month of operations. In September 2009 preliminary services to the Kent coast (Dover via Folkestone, and Ramsgate via Canterbury) also began. Preview services on the North Kent line began in November 2009.
In September 2010 it was reported passengers were experiencing alarming 'wobbles' on tunnel sections. The problem was described by Southeastern as being non-dangerous and trains were fitted with dampers to prevent the problem from recurring.
Operations and performance 
A full regular service commenced on 13 December 2009. Initial services included a half-hourly north Kent service via Stratford, Ebbsfleet, Gravesend, Strood, Rochester, Chatham, Gillingham, Rainham, and Sittingbourne to Faversham, a half-hourly service to east Kent via Stratford, Ebbsfleet, Ashford with one train continuing to Margate via Canterbury West, Ramsgate and Broadstairs, and the other to Dover via Folkestone West and Folkestone Central. Seven million journeys were made in the first year of operation,
The introduction of the trains was generally successful, with good reliability and passenger satisfaction figures; the new high-speed services also caused an increase in passenger numbers above that already being experienced on the Kent network. On introduction timetabled journeys to London from Ebbsfleet were reduced from 51 to 18 minutes, whilst trains using the entire length of High Speed 1 (starting in Ashford) had timetabled journeys reduced by around 45 minutes. However, the service has been criticised as being of limited utility to many London commuters due to most services terminating at St Pancras. Additionally, the change in service patterns to accommodate the introduction of high-speed service has resulted in some non-high-speed services in Kent being slower.
In May 2011 a limited service from Maidstone West via Strood and Gravesend started. followed in September 2011 by a limited service from Sandwich via Deal to London St Pancras, partially subsidised by Kent County Council. In the second year of operation total passenger numbers were over eight million.
The 400 Series mini-shinkansen and Hitachi's A Train design form the basis of the Class 395 design. From the 400 series the class inherits the same 6 car 20m carriage with doors at one-third and two-thirds along the carriage.[note 3] Both are designed for operations at high-speed on newly built lines as well as lower speed on conventional legacy lines. Unlike the steel bodied Series 400 the Class 395 has its carbody (walls, roof, floor) formed from friction stir welded doubled walled hollow extruded aluminium body panels, a technology Hitachi classes as being part of its A-Train train family specification.
The train consists of six carriage units, with all axles on the middle four cars powered. The outer cars are unpowered, but mount the pantographs, giving a formation of DPTSO+MSO+MSO+MSO+MSO+DPTSO. The bogies are bolsterless, with both powered and unpowered bogies sharing common design to simplify maintenance. Each 6 car unit can work in multiple with another, creating 12 car trains. Coupling is automated and is designed to take less than 60 seconds.
For reliability passenger doors use a relatively simple sliding pneumatic system already in use and development for several decades on Shinkansen trains. The brake system was supplied by Faiveley. Approximately 40% of the train equipment by value was sourced from European suppliers.
There are 340 seats per 6 car train, in standard class [2+2] formation with 12 additional tip up seats in a wheelchair area. There are two toilets per unit, one of which is equipped for disabled access.
The trains meet UK Railway Group Standards (RGS), and European Union Technical Specifications for Interoperability (TSI) standards for crashworthiness, and UK or EU standards for structure load bearing behaviour, material strength, aerodynamics, noise and fire resistance.
Each train has a Train Management System (TMS) including equipment monitoring systems, communications, air-conditioning etc., and equipment control including Selective Door Operation (SDO). The SDO system uses GPS and train speed integration to estimate position.
The chime preceding the automated announcements is the same as the Stockholm Metro rolling stock.
Javelin names 
Units have been named in honour of 'fast Britons'. The first person to have a train named in their honour was Dame Kelly Holmes. Other Britons with named Class 395s include olympic medallists Jamie Staff, Steve Backley, Steve Redgrave, Rebecca Adlington, Chris Hoy, Ben Ainslie, Daley Thompson, Duncan Goodhew, Katherine Grainger, Sebastian Coe and Tanni Grey-Thompson.
|395 001||Dame Kelly Holmes|
|395 002||Sebastian Coe|
|395 003||Sir Steve Redgrave|
|395 004||Sir Chris Hoy|
|395 005||Dame Tanni Grey-Thompson|
|395 006||Daley Thompson|
|395 007||Steve Backley|
|395 008||Ben Ainslie|
|395 009||Rebecca Adlington|
|395 016||Jamie Staff|
|395 017||Dame Sarah Storey|
|395 018||Mo Farah|
|395 019||Jessica Ennis|
|395 020||Jason Kenny|
|395 021||Ed Clancy|
|395 022||Alistair Brownlee|
|395 023||Ellie Simmonds|
|395 026||Marc Woods|
Following the 2012 Olympics and Paralympics, Southeastern announced that another 12 units would be named after members of Team GB, including Alistair Brownlee, Ed Clancy, Hannah Cockroft, Jessica Ennis, Mo Farah, Jason Kenny, Jonnie Peacock, Victoria Pendleton, Ellie Simmonds, Sarah Storey, Laura Trott and David Weir.
Fleet details 
|Class||Operator||No. Built||Year Built||Cars per Set||Unit nos.|
|Class 395||Southeastern||29||2007–2009||6||395001 - 395029|
See also 
- The project known as the "Verification train" or "V-Train"
- Ashford train depot
- The Class 395 door positions are of the commuter type to conform with the train specification of a maximum 90 second station dwell time.
- "Final Class 395 docks in Southampton". Railway Gazette International. 17 August 2009.
- "High-speed travel for commuters", news.bbc.co.uk (BBC News), 14 December 2009
- "New timetable brings the launch of the full High-Speed commuter service", Railway Herald (206), 21 December 2009: 2
- "FINAL CLASS 395 TRAIN ARRIVES IN SOUTHAMPTON, BEGINS LAST LEG OF JOURNEY TO DEPOT IN ASHFORD", www.hitachi.eu (Hitachi)
- Railway-vehicle Technologies for European Railways, Takeshi Kawasaki et al, p.61
- Development and Maintenance of Class 395 High-speed Train for UK High Speed 1, Toshihiko Mochida et al, Fig.3, p.41
- Hitachi Class 395, Railway Strategies Live 2010, pp. 10–11
- Platform Five British Railways Pocket Book No. 4 EMUS AND LIGHT RAIL SYSTEMS 2010
- Today's Railway UK (86). February 2009. p. 60.
- Development and Maintenance of Class 395 High-speed Train for UK High Speed 1, Toshihiko Mochida et al, pp.40, Table 1 "Key Rolling Stock Specifcations"
- "Hitachi preferred for CTRL domestic trains". www.railwaygazette.com. Railway Gazette International. 1 December 2004.
- "London 2012 venue: Olympic zone", news.bbc.co.uk, 16 January 2004, "London's bid team say the Olympic Park will be served by 10 train lines, including 'Olympic Javelin' bullet trains providing a link to the city centre in seven minutes."
- "£20m bullet trains to serve Olympic Park". London 2012. 28 October 2004.
- "Javelin train speeds into London". BBC News. 12 December 2008.
- "High speed trains to ferry spectators to Olympic Park", www.itv.com, 28 July 2012
- "Green Light for High Speed Services for Kent , Four Bidders Selected for new Kent Franchise", www.omegacentre.bartlett.ucl.ac.uk (Strategic Rail Authority / Government News Network South East), 22 December 2003
- Christopher Clark (Spring 2004), "Commuter Services on Channel Tunnel Rail Link and the Integrated Kent Franchise (28 January 2004)", Journal of the Transport Economists' Group 31 (1): 7–11
- "Integrated Kent Franchise — Invitation to Tender", www.dft.gov.uk via webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk (Strategic Rail Authority), January 2005, 1.5 Scope of the IKF, pp.10
- London’s New bullet train, Government Office for London, 29 October 2004, archived from the original on 5 November 2005
- "Hitachi wins Channel Tunnel Rail Link Contract", www.hitachi-rail.com (Hitachi), 28 October 2004
- "£250 million rolling stock acquisition Hitachi Europe Ltd, HSBC Rail (UK) Ltd, Strategic Rail Authority", www.internationallawoffice.com (Globe Business Publishing Ltd)
- "Kent high speed order placed", Railway Herald 1 (11), 10 June 2005: 4
- "News in Brief". www.railwaygazette.com. Railway Gazette International. 1 July 2005.
- "£250 Million Contract Signed for New High Speed Train Fleet for Kent", www.dft.gov.uk via webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk (Strategic Rail Authority), 1 June 2005
- "Department for Transport announces integrated Kent franchise", www.dft.gov.uk (Department for Transport), 30 November 2005 (30 January 2006)
- Hitachi's Entry into the European Railway Market, Stephen J. Gomersall
- Railway-vehicle Technologies for European Railways, Takeshi Kawasaki et al
- Hirofumi Ojima (24 January 2008), "Networkers get a traction transplant", www.railwaygazette.com (Railway Gazette International), Proven track record
- Select Committee on Future Passenger Rail Services in Kent (2008), 2.2 Services
- Development and Maintenance of Class 395 High-speed Train for UK High Speed 1, Toshihiko Mochida et al, Maintenance, pp.44-45
- "Hitachi Class 395 – an update", www.railwaypeople.com, 15 August 2008
- "HITACHI UNVEILS 'BULLET TRAIN' AT NEW ASHFORD DEPOT", www.hitachi.com (Hitachi), 2 October 2007
- "Train Lifting-Gear Deals Won", www.mechan.co.uk (Mechan), 17 December 2007
- "Ashford & Ramsgate Traincare Depots", www.volkerrail.co.uk
- "Fitzpatrick Contractors Ltd - News from Fitzpatrick: new depots, new division", www.railwaystrategies.co.uk, 11 March 2008
- "At home with the High Speed 1 domestic stock", www.railwaygazette.com (Railway Gazette International), 30 October 2007
- "Integrated Kent Franchise Stakeholder Briefing Document", assets.dft.gov.uk, January 2005, 3.2.4 Depots, pp.19
- "High-speed simulator", www.railwaystrategies.co.uk (Schofield Publishing), 1 November 2007
- "SouthEastern drivers commence class 395 'Javelin' simulator training", www.railperf.org.uk (Railway Performance Society), 1 October 2008
- "Train drivers get up to speed on new simulator", www.railwaytechnologymagazine.com, 3 October 2008
- "High Speed in the UK", www.keolis.com (Keolis), retrieved 1 January 2012
- "Hitachi high speed Javelin train ready to ship to UK", aslefonline.co.uk (ASLEF), retrieved 1 January 2012
- "Japanese bullet train docks in UK". BBC News. 23 August 2007.
- "Hitachi Class 395 EMU arrives in Britain". Railway Gazette International. 23 August 2007.
- "New rolling stock for the Olympic Javelin service", www.serco.com (Serco), retrieved 1 January 2012
- "SNCF International - Annual report 09", www.sncf-international (SNCF): 7
- "Rapport d'Activité 2008", www.sncf-international (in French) (SNCF): 10, "Dans le cadre d’un contrat conclu entre SNCF International et Hitachi, des experts du Centre d’Ingénierie du Matériel de la SNCF étaient à bord des trains à Grande Vitesse Class 395 de l’opérateur SouthEastern pour contrôler le bon fonctionnement des équipements de sécurité. Des tests à 240 km/h ont eu lieu en janvier 2008 pour valider définitivement les dispositifs des premières rames livrées en Grande-Bretagne"
- "SNCF International - Annual report 2009", www.sncf-international (SNCF): 17
- "FIRST PRODUCTION UNITS OF HITACHI CLASS 395 TRAINS FOR HS1 SERVICE EMBARK ON JOURNEY FROM JAPAN TO UK ON TIME", www.hitach.eu (Hitachi), 9 December 2008
- Development of UK Class 395 High Speed Commuter Train, Keith Jordan, 3. Design, Testing and commissioning
- "Final three 'Javelin' units arrive at Southampton Docks", Railway Herald (191), 24 August 2009: 3 More than one of
- "Hitachi hands over the final Class 395 'Javelin' EMU", Railway Herald (205), 14 December 2009: 7 More than one of
- "High speed preview services announced", www.southeasternrailway.co.uk (Southeastern), 1 June 2009
- "Southeastern ready to launch High Speed service", www.railwaygazette.com (Railway Gazette International), 18 June 2009
- "High speed preview service extends to Dover, Folkestone, Canterbury and Ramsgate", www.southeasternrailway.co.uk (Southeastern), 7 September 2009
- "HIGH SPEED SERVICE CROWNED CHAMPION", www.hitachi.eu, 17 September 2010
- "Southeastern win National Rail Award for High Speed preview services", www.southeasternrailway.co.uk (Southeastern), 17 September 2010
- Massey, Ray (9 September 2010). "Urgent changes ordered to Olympic bullet trains after they suffer 'alarming' 140mph wobble". Daily Mail. Retrieved 6 September 2011.
- Morris, Thom (8 Sep 2010). "'Wobbles' corrected on high speed trains". Kentonline. Retrieved 6 September 2011.
- "Modification programme for Class 395 'wobble' issue", Railway Herald (238), 13 Sep 2010: 4 More than one of
- "High speed service", www.southeasternrailway.co.uk (Southeastern), 8 October 2008
- "Over 7 million journeys made on high speed in a year", www.southeasternrailway.co.uk (Southeastern), 13 December 2010
- Adam OConnor (13 December 2010), "Over 7 million journeys made on High Speed in a year", www.rail-news.com
- "Domestic High Speed 'attracts 1m new passengers'", www.railnews.co.uk, 13 December 2010
- Select Committee on Future Passenger Rail Services in Kent (2008), Fig. 2.5
- "High Speeding To Success", www.southeasternrailway.co.uk (Southeastern), 14 June 2010
- "High speed train service 'no use at all' for East Kent", www.bbc.co.uk (BBC News)
- "High-speed trains start from Maidstone". Kent Messenger Group. Retrieved 23 May 2011.
- "High-speed train boost for Sandwich and Deal in Kent", www.bbc.co.uk (BBC News), 30 April 2011
- "High speed services have launched from Sandwich and Deal", www.southeasternrailway.co.uk (Southeastern), 5 Sep 2011
- "High speed continues to grow", www.southeasternrailway.co.uk (Southeastern), 13 December 2011
- Hitachi Class 395, Railway Strategies Live 2010, Base Train for Class 395, p.10
- Railway-vehicle Technologies for European Railways, Takeshi Kawasaki et al, Basic Specifications, pp.40-41
- Hitachi's Entry into the European Railway Market, Stephen J. Gomersall, Train configuration, pp.12
- "Rolling Stock Reliability Focus - Dilemmas on Doors", Modern Railways, January 2011, Air or electric? pp.61 More than one of
- "Brakes & Couplers - Regional Trains", www.faiveleytransport.com (Faiveley Transport)
- Railway-vehicle Technologies for European Railways, Takeshi Kawasaki et al, Accommodating Specifications, pp.62-63
- Development and Maintenance of Class 395 High-speed Train for UK High Speed 1, Toshihiko Mochida et al, Train Operation Control Suitable for Operating Practices Specification to UK, pp.43-44
- Colin Duff, "A Review of the Hornby Class 395", www.semgonline (Southern E Group)
- Railfest 2012 souvenir prochure. Bauer Media. 2–10 June 2012.
- "First Class 395 'Javelin' named at Ashford International", Railway Herald (195), 28 Sep 2009: 6
- High speed Javelin train named after Paralympic great Dame Sarah Storey - Southeastern, 7 February 2013
- Stephen J. Gomersall (December 2005), "Hitachi's Entry into the European Railway Market", Japan Railway & Transport Review (42): 10–16
- Takeshi Kawasaki; Takashi Yamaguchi; Toshihiko Mochida (March 2008), "Railway-vehicle Technologies for European Railways", Hitachi Review 57 (1) More than one of
- Toshihiko Mochida; Naoaki Yamamoto; Kenjiro Goda; Takashi Kamei (April 2010), "Development and Maintenance of Class 395 High-speed Train for UK High Speed 1", Hitachi Review 59 (1): 39–46
- Keith Jordan, "Development of UK Class 395 High Speed Commuter Train", www.trafikverket.se (Hitachi Rail Europe Ltd.)
- "Select Committee on Future Passenger Rail Services in Kent", shareweb.kent.gov.uk (Kent County Council), October 2008
- "Hitachi Class 395, Railway Strategies Live 2010, 23 June 2010". www.railalliance.co.uk. Hitachi. 2 July 2010.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: British Rail Class 395|
- "Class 395 Train Case Study". www.hitachi.co.uk. Hitachi.
- David Glasspool, "Ashford Hitachi Depot", www.kentrail.org.uk