Francis Claud Cockburn of Brook Lodge, Youghal, County Cork, Munster, Ireland (// KOH-bərn; 12 April 1904 – 15 December 1981) was a British journalist. He was a well known proponent of communism. His saying "believe nothing until it has been officially denied" is widely quoted in journalistic studies, although he doesn't claim credit for originating it. He was the second cousin, once removed, of novelists Alec Waugh and Evelyn Waugh.
Life and work
Cockburn was born in Beijing, China on 12 April 1904, the son of Henry Cockburn, a British Consul General, and wife Elizabeth Gordon (née Stevenson). His paternal great-grandfather was Scottish judge/biographer Henry Cockburn, Lord Cockburn.
Cockburn was educated at Berkhamsted School, Berkhamstead, Hertfordshire, and Keble College, University of Oxford, Oxford, Oxfordshire, graduating with a Bachelor of Arts degree. He became a journalist with The Times and worked as a foreign correspondent in Germany and the United States before resigning in 1933 to start his own newsletter, The Week. There is a story that during his spell as a sub-editor on The Times, Cockburn and colleagues had a competition to devise the most accurate yet boring headline. Cockburn claimed the honours with "Small Earthquake in Chile, Not many dead". No copy of The Times featuring this headline has been located, although it did appear in Not the Times, a spoof version of the newspaper produced by several Times journalists in 1979 during the paper's year-long absence due to industrial dispute.
Under the name Frank Pitcairn, Cockburn contributed to the British communist newspaper, the Daily Worker. In 1936, Harry Pollitt, General Secretary of the Communist Party of Great Britain, asked him to cover the Spanish Civil War. He joined the Fifth Regiment to report the war as a soldier. While in Spain, he published Reporter in Spain. In the late 1930s, Cockburn published a private newspaper The Week that was highly critical of Neville Chamberlain and was secretly subsidized by the Soviet government. Cockburn maintained in the 1960s that much of the information in The Week was leaked to him by Sir Robert Vansittart, the Permanent Under-Secretary of the Foreign Office. At the same time, Cockburn claimed that MI5 was spying on him because of The Week, but the British historian D.C. Watt argued that it was more likely that if anyone was spying on Cockburn, it was the Special Branch of Scotland Yard who were less experienced in this work than MI5. Cockburn was an opponent of appeasement before the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact. In a 1937 article in The Week, Cockburn coined the term Cliveden set to describe what he alleged to be an upper-class pro-German group that exercised influence behind the scenes. The Week ceased publication shortly after the war began. Much of the information that The Week printed was false and was designed to serve the needs of Soviet foreign policy by planting rumours that served Moscow's interests. Watt used as an example the claim The Week made in February–March 1939 that German troops were concentrating in Klagenfurt for an invasion of Yugoslavia, which Watt pointed out was a completely false claim with no basis in reality.
Cockburn was attacked by George Orwell in Homage to Catalonia (1938). Orwell accused Cockburn of being under the control of the Communist Party and was critical of the way Cockburn reported the Barcelona May Days. According to the editor of a volume of his writings on Spain, Cockburn formed a personal relationship with Mikhail Koltsov, "then the foreign editor of Pravda and, in Cockburn's view, 'the confidant and mouthpiece and direct agent of Stalin in Spain'".
In 1947, Cockburn moved to Ireland and lived at Ardmore, County Waterford, and continued to contribute to newspapers and journals, including a weekly column for The Irish Times. In the Irish Times he famously stated that "Wherever there is a stink in international affairs, you will find that Henry Kissinger has recently visited".
Among his novels were The Horses, Ballantyne's Folly, Jericho Road, and Beat the Devil (originally under the pseudonym James Helvick), which was made into a film directed by John Huston with script credit to Truman Capote. The title was later used by Cockburn's son Alexander for his regular column in The Nation.
He published Bestseller, an exploration of English popular fiction, Aspects of English History (1957), The Devil's Decade (1973), his history of the 1930s, and Union Power (1976).
His first volume of memoirs was published as In Time of Trouble (1956) in the UK and as A Discord of Trumpets in the U.S.. This was followed by Crossing the Line (1958), and A View from the West (1961). Revised, these were published by Penguin as I Claud in 1967. Again revised and shortened, with a new chapter, they were republished as Cockburn Sums Up shortly before he died.
Claud Cockburn married three times: all three of his wives were also journalists. 1: to Hope Hale Davis; with whom he fathered Claudia Cockburn Flanders (wife of Michael Flanders); 2: to Jean Ross (model for Christopher Isherwood's Sally Bowles of Cabaret fame); with whom he fathered Sarah Caudwell Cockburn, author of detective stories; 3: to Patricia Byron in 1940 (née Patricia Evangeline Anne Arbuthnot (17 March 1914 - 6 October 1989), daughter of Major John Bernard Arbuthnot and Olive Blake), (author of The Years of the Week and Figure of Eight); with whom he fathered Alexander, Andrew (husband of Leslie Cockburn), and Patrick.
- Charles Mosley, editor, Burke's Peerage, Baronetage & Knightage, 107th edition, 3 volumes (Wilmington, Delaware, U.S.A.: Burke's Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd, 2003), volume 1, page 120.
- Article in wikiquotes
- Pilger's law: 'If it's been officially denied, then it’s probably true'
- Claud Cockburn quotes
- In his autobiography "In Time of Trouble" he refers to this phrase as advice he had "often heard" (London, 1957) p. 168.
- In his autobiography, "In Time of Trouble" (London, 1957), p.125.
- See New York magazine, 30 July 1979, p. 8. New York magazine
- Watt, Donald Cameron "Rumors as Evidence" pages 276-286 from Russia War, Peace and Diplomacy edited by Ljubica & Mark Erickson, London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2004 page 278.
- Watt, Donald Cameron "Rumors as Evidence" pages 276-286 from Russia War, Peace and Diplomacy edited by Ljubica & Mark Erickson, London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2004 page 283.
- Cockburn, Claud. Ballantyne's Folly, Hogarth, 1970.
- Arbuthnot: Mrs. P. S-M. Arbuthnot, Memories of the Arbuthnots of Kincardineshire and Aberdeenshire (London, 1920), p. 311. Patricia married firstly on 10 October 1933 to Arthur Cecil Byron, son of Cecil Byron, divorcing in 1940,
- Charles Mosley, editor, Burke's Peerage, Baronetage & Knightage, 107th edition, 3 volumes (Wilmington, Delaware, U.S.A.: Burke's Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd, 2003), volume 1, page 120
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