|Cultural origins||Haitian Méringue with elements of Cuban contradanza|
|Typical instruments||Drum, conga, cowbell, Guitars, Keyboards, Horn section, modern Synthesizer, Bass|
|Derivative forms||Kadans, zouk, kizomba, kuduro, Coladeira, soca|
|Haiti, French West Indies, Dominica, Canada, France, Africa, Panama, Cape Verde, South America, North America, Portugal, Angola, Brazil|
|Music of Haiti - Nemours Jean Baptiste - Weber Sicot - Haiti|
|Music of Haiti|
|Media and performance|
|Nationalistic and patriotic songs|
|National anthem||La Dessalinienne|
Compas music (written as Compas Direct in French and Kompa or konpa in Haitian Creole) is a modern Méringue, the national music genre of Haiti that people have been dancing and singing since the 1800s. Popularized by Haitian sax and guitar player Nemours Jean-Baptiste in 1955, Compas is the main music of many countries such as Martinique, Guadeloupe, Dominica, etc. Whether it is incorrectly called zouk where French Antilles artists of Martinique and Guadeloupe have taken it or compas in places where Haitian artists have toured, this meringue style is very influential in the Caribbean, Africa, Cape Verde, Portugal, France, part of Canada, South and North America.
- 1 History
- 2 Digital era, new generation or light compas
- 3 Meringue-compas music and its derivatives
- 4 Etymology and characteristics
- 5 Most influential meringue (compas/cadence) bands
- 6 Notable compas or meringue artists
- 7 See also
- 8 References
Compas direct is a modern meringue popularized in 1955 by the Nemours Jean Baptiste, a Haitian sax and guitar player influenced by the music of Cuba and the Dominican Republic. Nemours Jean-Baptiste presented his orchestra “Ensemble Aux Calebasses” in 1955 (named after the club “Aux Calebasses” located at Carrefour - a western neighborhood of Port-au-Prince, Haiti's capital - where the band used to perform on weekends). Compas popularity took off likely due to the genre's ability to improvise and hold the rhythm section steady. Jean-Baptiste incorporated a lot of brass and easily recognized rhythms. Compas music is sung in Haitian Creole, English, Spanish, French, Portuguese, etc.
Nemours' popularity grew in and out of the country. Its clean horn section was remarkable and the band featured meringue tunes that gained instant popularity. In Martinique, several music groups: Ensemble Abricot (bienvenue, festival compas), les djoubap's (Isabelle), combo jazz (electronique compas, pa gadem sou cote), Georges Plonquitte (vini dance compas direct), etc. have all within a year conquered the public with the many tunes or compositions of Nemours. Haitian compas and cadence bands were asked to integrate Antillean musicians. Consequently, the leading "Les Guais troubadours", with influential singer "Louis Lahens" along other bands, played a very important role in the schooling of Antilleans to the meringue compas or kadans music style. Later Nemours became a favorite of Dominican president, Joachim Ballaguer who often contracted the band. This is why hits like "ti Carole", "Chagrin d'amour" featured by known Dominican stars Luis Miguel and others are also sung in Spanish.
The Mini jazz movement started in the mid-1960s, small bands called mini-djaz (which grew out of Haiti’s light rock and roll yeye bands of the early 1960s) played kompa featuring paired electric guitars, electric bass, drumset and other percussion, often with a saxophone. This trend, launched by Shleu Shleu after 1965, came to include a number of groups from Port-au-Prince neighbourhoods, especially the suburb of Pétion-Ville. Tabou Combo, Les Difficiles, Les Loups Noirs, Frères DéJean, Les Fantaisistes de Carrefour, Bossa Combo and Les Ambassadeurs (among others) formed the core of this middle-class popular music movement.
From 1968 to the 1970s prominent bands like Bossa Combo, les Shleu shleu, les Ambassadeurs, les Vickings, les fantaisistes, les Loups noirs, les Freres Dejean, les Difficiles, les Gypsies and mostly the majestic Tabou Combo have exerted a dominance on the Caribbean and many places in Europe and South America musical scene. For example, Tabou Combo has remained on the Paris hit parade for weeks with its "New York City" hit. Tabou did filled New York Central park in the same period. Guitar based mini-jazz such like Les Difficiles and Gypsies influenced many flamenco artists. The guitar was the king instrument.
These young Haitian mini-jazz musicians were critical in the creation of new technics that contribute to the fancyness of the style. Although Raymond Guaspard (Nemours) had already started it in the 50s, however, guitar players such as Corvington (Les Corvington), Serge Rosenthal (Shleu shleu), Ricardo/Tiplum (Les ambassadeurs), Robert Martineau (Les Difficiles/Gypsies/Scorpio/Topvice...), Dadou Pasket (Tabou combo/Magnum band), Jean Claude Jean (Tabou combo/Super star...), Claude Marcellin (Les Difficiles/DP. Express/Zekle...), Police Nozile (Freres Dejean/DP. Express...) and many more have created intricate mostly rhythmic guitar styles that constitute a strong distinguishable feature of the meringue.
Cadence/in the Caribbean
As early as 1962 the Sicot Brothers from Haiti would frequently tour the Caribbean, especially Dominica, the French Islands of Martinique & Guadeloupe, Aruba, St. Martin, Bahamas and others to spread the seed of cadence, a Haitian Méringue. Webert Sicot, the originator of cadence recorded three LPs albums with French Antilles producers: two with "Celini disques" in Guadeloupe and one with "Balthazar" in Martinique. In addition to the Sicot brothers, almost all existing Haitian compas bands have toured in these Islands that have since adopted the music and the dance of the Meringue. Exile One, Grammacks, Les Leopards, la Perfecta, Kassav...are all cadence/compas or Méringue bands.
Cadence-lypso or Dominica kadans
Cadence-lypso is the Dominica kadans introduced in the early 60s by the Sicot brothers. The most influential figure in the promotion of Cadence-lypso was the Dominican group Exile One(based on the island of Guadeloupe) that featured the calypso music and reggae from the English speaking Caribbean and mostly the cadence rampa from Haiti. It was pushed in the 1970s by groups from Dominica, and was the first style of Dominican music to find international acclaim.
Gordon Henderson, Exile One's leader and founder coined the name "Cadence-lypso" in his full band that used a full-horn section, and the first to use the synthesizers in kadans. Many mini-jazz from Haiti and the French Antilles followed this format. Exile One was the first Caribbean band to sign a production contract with major label Barclay Records. The first to export kadans music to the four corners of the globe: Japan, the Indian Ocean, Africa, North America, Europe, The Cape Verde islands.
Digital era, new generation or light compas
In the mid 80's, French Antilles kassav, which music repertoire is 85% compas music, was the first in the Caribbean to apply the MIDI technology, already in use in pop and rock bands, to compas. In the late 80's, After Robert Charlot Raymonvil came out with Top Vice, young Haitian music groups applied the MIDI technology that in addition to reduce the band's size offers a variety of new sounds. They were called nouvelle generation; however, most of them later, along with many other musicians in the world, went back to a full band with live instruments. The new generation was a moment of experiment with the MIDI technology. Popular new generation bands were Zin, Phantom, Lakole, Papash and a few more. Phantom was the first to return to a full band in less than two years while zin, lakol and papash continued with the MIDI without a live horn section.
In the early 2000, several compas bands such as Carimi, T-vice, Top vice, and Zeglen toured the French Antilles as usual with success. The singer Vro who sang in duet with Digital Compas pioneer Robert Charlot on her album Softcore and many others Antillean artists have adopted this light compas style, which is more popular in France and the Caribbean. The compas' fine guitar lines with the chorus and other synthesizer effects is being heard now in the lighter French Antilles compas. For example, French Antilles singer Tanya St. Val who has collaborated with many great Haitian compas artists like Alan Cave, Dadou Pasket from the great Magnum band, etc. is very close to this style. The beauty of this is that these compas lands influence one another with nice chorus, guitar lines, female voices...within the team up of the conga-drum-cowbell.
Cabo Verdean, Caribbean and African artists usually feature one another via compas songs. A review of several CDs from African, Cabo Verdean, French Antilles and Haitian artists shows many similarities.
Meringue-compas music and its derivatives
Today the meringue compas, deeply rooted in many countries, has influenced many music styles and been called other names:
In Dominica, the same meringue called either cadence or compas introduced in the late 50s with the frequent tours of the Sicot brothers is often called cadence-lypso. Webert Sicot, the originator of cadance known for his great harmonic skills, was well appreciated in Guadeloupe. This is why the term cadence was more popular than the word compas. Exile One, the leader of the word cadence-lypso, featured some reggae, calypso but mostly cadence music. It is not sure whether the band's intent was to fusion Trinidadian calypso with Haitian cadence since little was done. The song "La Dominique" in the album "Exile One Old School Session" could be an attempt, however, not often repeated. Exile one music repertoire is mostly cadence with all the features of the style. Of course the band had its personality; it was a great kadans band.
Originally zouk beton, the only zouk style created is a fast carnival tempo, mixed of gwo ka, tambour, tibwa, biguine and mostly kadans or meringue-compas with the full use of the MIDI technology. By the late 80s zouk beton lost ground. Too fast, people went back to compas music, their main music, after all French Antilleans and Dominicans are important players of the meringue-compas or cadence style. Musicians from Martinique and Guadeloupe have labeled compas music as zouk. Therefore compas music has been erroneously called zouk creating a big confusion in Africa, Cabo Verde, Angola and even in Portugal and other places. Actually since the late 80s zouk beton has faded away French Antilles kassav, the originator of the zouk beton, is a superb compas music band that has taken compas to many places in Africa, France, Portugal, Cabo Verde, Angola and others.
From the 80's one can notice the strong compas music influence in Cape Verdean music. Cabo Verdeans have been exposed to compas in the USA and France where they adopted the styles. In addition, French Antillean artists whose main music is compas toured the island to spray the seed. Many Cabo Verdean artists feature compas music. A good example is The talented Tito Paris who produced several CDs. "danca mami Criola" 1994, is a good compas CD close to Tabou combo, kassav, Caribbean Sextet, Exile One, Tropicana, etc...Today the new generation of Cabo Verdean artists features a ligh compas close to Haitian and French Antillean New generation to what several names have been given: cola-dance, cola-zouk, cabo-swing, cabo-love, kizomba, etc.
Kizomba is a popular music from Angola. It is a derivative of traditional Angolan samba associated strongly with French Antilles compas music. Although most music came from Africa, however, Angola has been receiving Haitian influence for years. For instance, great meringue queen, Haitian Martha Jean-claude, has lent her voice and music to the Angolan revolution. She came with the Cuban troups. During the 70s, Haitian bands such as Coupe cloue, bossa combo, Dp Express...were popular in Africa. During the 80s-90s, French Antilles kassav has toured the country with its fast zouk beton and mostly compas music leaving great influence. Lately, kizomba has been close to French Antilles and Cape verdian light compas music and sung generally in Portuguese. No wonder why kizomba shows that strong similarity with meringue compas.
Etymology and characteristics
The word “Compás” in Spanish means “beat” or “rhythm,” and one of the most distinctive characteristics of Compas music is the consistent pulsating beat (Tambora (drum)), a trait common to many styles of Caribbean music. Compas music is easy and fun to dance to, incorporating musical traditions like Méringue, which propel dancers around the floor with lively, active beats (though Compas has a slower beat and dance than Merengue). You may hear the notes of Compas music in a community of Haitian immigrants anywhere in the world, and where there is Compas, dancers are usually not far behind. Compas / Kompa is a genre of music that is emulated throughout the Caribbean and parts of Africa. In North America, compas festivals take place frequently in Montreal, New York, Miami, Boston and Orlando.
Most influential meringue (compas/cadence) bands
Jazz Des Jeunes, Nemours Jean-Baptiste, Ensemble Webert Sicot, Les Guais troubadours, Ochestre Tropicana, Martha Jean-claude, Les Gypsies de Petion ville, DP Express, Tabou combo, Magnum band, Coupe Cloue, Les Freres Dejean, System Band, Exile One, Grammacks, Kassav, Les shleu sleu, Djet-X, Les Skah Sha, Sweet Miky, etc.
Notable compas or meringue artists
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (October 2011)|
- Ensemble Nemours Jean-Baptiste
- Ensemble Webert Sicot
- Tabou Combo
- Les Skah Sha
- Les Freres Dejean
- Les Shleu Shleu
- DP Express
- Volo Volo
- Les Leopards
- Coupé Cloué
- Sweet Micky
- Tito Paris
- La Perfecta
- Experience 7
- Ti Manno
- Eric Virgal
- Tanya St. Val
- Patrick St. Elois
- Jocelyne Beroard
- Alan Cavé
- Nu Look
- Djakout Mizik
- System Band
- Dan Junior
- Kreyol La
- Kompa Kreyol
- Les Gypsies de Petion ville
- Les Difficiles
- Les ambassadeurs
- All Music Guide/Latin music, Tropical, compas
- Peter Manuel, Musics of the Non western World, University Press p74, 1988
- Peter Manuel, Caribbean Music from Rumba to Reggae, 2nd edition, Temple University Phila 2006
- Gage Averill, A day for the Hunter, a day for the Pray, University of Chicago Press, 1997
- Peter Manuel, Musics of the Non-Western World, University Press 1988, p72-74
- Dominique Janvier, introduction on Nemour' album cover 1980, long vie to Nemours
- Album "Exile one - Gordon Henderson 40 volume 1" features 14 kadans out of 18 tunes. 1. Rosita 2. ba yo boi 3. jumbolo 4. jamais voir ca (calypso tune) 5. reflexion 6. n'homme ka batte n'homme 7. gadez deye 8. ah ta ta 9. Ico vole 10. pompilili 11. aki yaka 12. vivent les vacances aux antilles (calypso tune) 13. Ilyne (calypso tune) 14. nous travail pou ayen 15. cadence lypso 16. sexile 17. come here (reggae tune) 18. interlude. The song cadence lypso is a kadans tune. A third album "Collector kadance lypso" features twelve meringue cadence tunes. The album also features tunes from other kadans bands: 2. Rigrete (Midnight Groover), Serpent la (C Top 6), la vie vini plus raid (Belles combo) 9. Coq et perroquet (Liquid Ice) 12. mwen di ou fe (Black Affairs) 7. Chanson d'amour Ophelia (Exile one)
- The album "Exile one-Old school Session: Gree/Vert" features mostly meringue cadence or compas: 6 out of 8 tunes. 1) fete commune 2) torti 3) famille Creole 4) d'leau 5) sauvez riviere la and 7) Sylvie
- Zouk has become indistinguishable from compas music. Peter Manuel: Popular Musics of the Non-Western World,p74, Oxford University Press 1988
- Martha Jean Claude bio. Born on March 21, 1919 in Port-au-Prince, Martha Jean Claude was an actress, dancer, singer, writer, compositor, philanthropist, an activist and perhaps the most respected Haitian artist in the international scene. Martha Jean Claude was very successful from the beginning of her career, due to her extremely beautiful voice and the deep connection she had with the people through her folkloric and voodoo lyrics. An avid speaker against the abuse of the masses by authorities, led to her arrest in 1952, under then President Paul Eugene Magloire, after the publication of one of her play "Anriette", which officials deemed to be against the government. She got imprisoned while pregnant. Had she not been released when she did, she would have given birth in jail, because just 2 days after her release, her first child was born. fearing for her life, Martha Jean Claude exiled to Cuba on December 20, 1952, joining her husband, Victor Marabal, a Cuban Journalist whom she had met in Venezuela at one of her concert, prior to her incarceration. Martha was already known in the Spanish speaking community, and her fame just risen even more. She went on tho make appearance on many TV and Radio show in Cuba. In 1957, she flew to Mexico to star in a movie alongside the well famous Cuban-Mexican actress, Ninon Sevilla, today considered one of the greatest artist in Cuba. She achieved great success and even became a producer at a Mexican TV station, all within just a year. She would return to Cuba the following year, and became a member of the very respected: "Cuban Union of Writers and Artists" while continuing her very successful singing career; she performed at some of the world most famous stages. Palais des beaux-Arts in Paris, Madison Square Garden in New York City, Casas de Las Americas in Cuba, Maison de L'UNESCO in Paris, United Nation Headquarter in New York City; Salle Claude Campagne: The Faculty of Music at the Montreal University and countless of other famous venues throughout the world. She toured most of the Spanish America and Many African countries, including Angola, which was going through one of the bloodiest civil war at the time. An activist voice was needed, and Martha Jean Claude was well known for her fiery political songs in not only Haiti, but also Cuba and even Panama. She lent her motherly voice to the revolution and was welcomed with great enthusiast by the Angolan population.
- A review of many kizomba tunes has shown a very strong similarity , even too much with meringue compas music. Kizomba all stard; o4 Nta Amado (Neusa) 02 Nha Joya (Nichol) Kizomba Benefica: 1 Sexual Healing slan 3 Ameyatchiki (Mathey 4 Cherie mon amour/Manulima & Mark G remix (Gilsemedo) 6 Voce Vai ver (Feat. Juka) kizomba Brasil Juka kizomba hits vol 2. 7 Pause kizomba Axel Tony Pause kizomba 8 Heven (Mark G; s kizomba remix) Kaysha Bailar kizomba Sushiraw 11 Real Peu pen kizomba Bruno Pereira Danca de verao kizomba 12 Heaven remix 13 kizomba de roda DJ christiano 15 Samora kizomba Bruno Pereira danca de verao kizomba 17 Eu Sei (Eeat Helvio) kizomba Brasil Helvio kizomba hits vol2 21 Soho 2012 remix light ou DJ Usidora kizomba Afro Latino 24 A Cabeca Doi kizomba Exitos vol 1 30OH fala Bem kizomba exitos vol 1 36 Mal acostumado feat Mikas Cabral kizomba Brasil ke vo2 39 Sonho A Dois Kizomba Grandes exitos de Brasil vol 2 42 Velha infancia Mikas Cabral, Neusa kizomba Brasil viva kizomba-flamkim ta sta Sempre Kaysha kizomba life 17 Musiquarian feat Jacob Desvarieux Keysha 19 Acabeca Doi, etc. are real meringue-compas music. A review of "Zekle", a powerful Haitian meringue band of the 80s and most compas music band from Haiti or the French Antilles will further show that kizomba is in fact strongly influenced by meringue compas music
- Manuel, Peter (2006). Caribbean Currents: Caribbean Music from Rumba to Reggae (2nd edition). Philadelphia: Temple University Press. ISBN 1-59213-463-7.
- Experience Haitian music on Mizikpam Internet Radio Accessed May 18, 2010
- Gage Averill (1997). Caribbean Current: A day for the hunter. A day for the prey. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press.