Constance Fenimore Woolson

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Constance Fenimore Woolson (March 5, 1840 – January 24, 1894) was an American novelist, poet, and short story writer. She was a grandniece of James Fenimore Cooper, and is best known for fictions about the Great Lakes region, the American South, and American expatriates in Europe.

Constance Fenimore Woolson
Constance Fenimore Woolson-older.jpg
Photograph of Woolson, c. 1887
Born (1840-03-05)March 5, 1840
Claremont, NH
Died January 24, 1894(1894-01-24)
Venice, Italy
Resting place Protestant Cemetery, Rome
Pen name Anne March (used for The Old Stone House)
Occupation Writer
Period Late Nineteenth Century: 1870-1894
Genre Novel, short story, poetry, travel narrative
Notable works Anne, “Miss Grief,” “Rodman the Keeper”
Relatives James Fenimore Cooper (great uncle)

Life and Writings[edit]

In America: the story-writer[edit]

Woolson was born in Claremont, New Hampshire, but her family soon moved to Cleveland, Ohio, after the deaths of three of her sisters from scarlet fever.[1] Woolson was educated at the Cleveland Female Seminary and a boarding school in New York. She traveled extensively through the midwest and northeastern regions of the U.S. during her childhood and young adulthood.

Woolson’s father died in 1869. The following year she began to publish fiction and essays in magazines such as The Atlantic Monthly and Harper's Magazine. Her first full-length publication was a children’s book, The Old Stone House (1873). In 1875 she published her first volume of short stories, Castle Nowhere: Lake-Country Sketches, based on her experiences in the Great Lakes region, especially Mackinac Island.

From 1873 to 1879 Woolson spent winters with her mother in St. Augustine, Florida. During these visits she traveled widely in the South which gave her material for her next collection of short stories, Rodman the Keeper: Southern Sketches (1880). After her mother’s death in 1879, Woolson went to Europe, staying at a succession of hotels in England, France, Italy, Switzerland and Germany.

In Europe: the novelist[edit]

Woolson published her first novel Anne in 1880, followed by three others: East Angels (1886), Jupiter Lights (1889) and Horace Chase (1894). In 1883 she published the novella For the Major, a story of the postwar South that has become one of her most respected fictions. In the winter of 1889–1890 she traveled to Egypt and Greece, which resulted in a collection of travel sketches, Mentone, Cairo and Corfu (published posthumously in 1896).

In 1893 Woolson rented an elegant apartment on the Grand Canal of Venice. Suffering from influenza and depression, she either jumped or fell to her death from a window in the apartment in January 1894. Two volumes of her short stories appeared after her death: The Front Yard and Other Italian Stories (1895) and Dorothy and Other Italian Stories (1896). She is buried in the Protestant Cemetery in Rome, and is memorialized by Anne's Tablet on Mackinac Island, Michigan.

Works by Woolson[edit]

Selected works of Constance Fenimore Woolson were printed (and reprinted) in several volumes of family biography by Woolson’s niece, Clare Benedict. Five Generations: 1785-1923 is the general title for three volumes published in 1930: Voices Out of the Past (Vol. 1), Constance Fenimore Woolson (Vol. 2), and The Benedicts Abroad (Vol. 3). Benedict then reprinted the second volume of the series, Constance Fenimore Woolson, in 1932 and added selected published and unpublished materials in “Appendix A.” In this reference section, the four volumes Benedict edited are referred to as: Benedict 1, Benedict 2, Benedict 3, Benedict 4 (1932).[2]

Novels
  • The Old Stone House, 1873. (Under pseudonym Anne March.)
  • Anne, 1880-1881.[3]
  • For the Major, 1882-1883.[4]
  • East Angels, 1885-1886.[5]
  • Jupiter Lights, 1889.[6]
  • Horace Chase, 1893.[7]
Poetry

Many of Woolson’s poems are now available in the Chadwick-Healey database LION (Literature On-Line).

  • “Charles Dickens. Christmas, 1870.” [8]
  • “In Memoriam,” 1871.[9]
  • “Alas,” 1871.[10]
  • “Thy Will Be Done,” 1871.[11]
  • “The Herald’s Cry,” 1872.[12]
  • “Love Unexpressed,” 1872.[13]
  • “Longing,” 1872.[14]
  • “Walpurgis Night,” 1872.[15]
  • “The Heart of June,” 1872.[16]
  • “Ideal. (The Artist Speaks.)” 1872.[17]
  • “Corn Fields,” 1872.[18]
  • “Lake Erie in September,” 1872.[19]
  • “Floating. Otsego Lake, September, 1872,” 1872.[20]
  • “October’s Song,” 1872.[21]
  • “Christmas in the City,” 1872.[22]
  • “Off Thunder Bay,” 1872.[23]
  • “Two Ways,” 1873.[24]
  • “Sail-Rock, Lake Superior,” 1873.[25]
  • “The Greatest of All is Charity,” 1873.[26]
  • “February,” 1873.[27]
  • “March,” 1873.[28]
  • “Commonplace,” 1873.[29]
  • “Cleopatra,” 1873.[30]
  • “Memory,” 1873.[31]
  • “Heliotrope,” 1873.[32]
  • “Kentucky Belle. (Told in An Ohio Farm-House, 1868),” 1873.[33]
  • “The Haunting Face,” 1873.[34]
  • “Hero Worship,” 1873.[35]
  • “Delores,” 1874.[36]
  • “At the Smithy. (Pickens County, South Carolina, 1874.)” 1874.[37]
  • “Indian Summer,” 1874.[38]
  • “Yellow Jessamine,” 1874.[39]
  • “The Florida Beach,” 1874.[40]
  • “Pine-Barrens,” 1874.[41]
  • “Matanzas River,” 1874.[42]
  • “The Legend of Maria Sanchez Creek,” 1875.[43]
  • “A Fire in the Forest,” 1875.[44]
  • “On the Border,” 1876.[45]
  • “Only the Brakesman,” 1876.[46]
  • “Morris Island,” 1876.[47]
  • “Four-Leaved Clover,” 1876.[48]
  • “On a Homely Woman, Dead,” 1876.[49]
  • “To George Eliot,” 1876.[50]
  • “Tom,” 1876.[51]
  • “Forgotten,” 1876.[52]
  • “To Jean Ingelow,” 1876.[53]
  • “Mizpah. Genesis 31.49,” 1877.[54]
  • “Two Women. 1862,” 1877.[55]
  • “‘I Too!’” 1877.[56]
  • “An Intercepted Letter,” 1878.[57]
  • “To Certain Biographers,” 1878.[58]
  • “Mentone,” 1884.[59]
  • “Gettysburg 1876,” 1889.[60]
  • “In March,” 1890.[61]
  • “Detroit River.” [62]
  • “Mackinac–Revisited.” [63]
  • “Clara ‘Bright, Illustrious.’” [64]
  • “Contrast. Six O’Clock Broadway.” [65]
  • “Plum’s Picture.” [66]
  • “We Shall Meet Them Again.” [67]
  • “Gentleman Waife. (The Animal Kingdom.)” [68]
  • “Martins on the Telegraph Wire.” [69]
  • “Haj you Chorgotten?” [70]
  • “The God of February.” [71]
  • “In the December Twilight.” [72]
Travel Writing & Nonfiction
  • “The Happy Valley.” [73]
  • “Fairy Island.” [74]
  • “New York. From Our Special Correspondent.” [75]
  • “New York. From Our Special Woman Correspondent.” [76]
  • “Gotham. From Our Own Correspondent.” [77]
  • “Gotham. From Our Own Correspondent.” [78]
  • “Gotham. From Our Own Correspondent.” [79]
  • “Gotham. From Our Own Correspondent.” [80]
  • “A Day of Mystery.” [81]
  • “The Haunted Lake.” [82]
  • “In Search of the Picturesque.” [83]
  • “American Cities–Detroit.” [84]
  • “Round by Propeller.” [85]
  • “Mackinac Island.” [86]
  • “The Wine Islands of Lake Erie.” [87]
  • “Lakeshore Relics.” [88]
  • “A Voyage to the Unknown River.” [89]
  • “The Ancient City.” [90]
  • “The French Broad.” [91]
  • “Up the Ashley and Cooper.” [92]
  • “Lake Superior.” [93]
  • “Mackinac.” [94]
  • “The South Shore of Lake Erie.” [95]
  • “On The Ohio.” [96]
  • “The Oklawaha.” [97]
  • “Pictures of Travel: The Last Summer of the St. Gotthard.” [98]
  • “The Roman May, and a Walk.” [99]
  • “At Mentone.” [100]
  • “Cairo in 1890.” [101]
  • “Corfu and the Ionian Sea.” [102]
  • Mentone, Cairo, and Corfu. [103]

Critical Reception[edit]

Woolson’s short stories have long been regarded as pioneering examples of local color or regionalism.[104] Today, Woolson's novels, short stories, poetry, and travelogues are studied and taught from a range of scholarly and critical perspectives, including feminist, psychoanalytic, gender studies,[105] postcolonial, and new historicism.[106]

In recent decades, critical work on Woolson has blossomed and teaching of Woolson at the high school and university levels has increased. Sharon L. Dean's The Complete Letters of Constance Fenimore Woolson,[107] published in 2012, is a wonderful resource for scholars, and another valuable resource, Anne Boyd Rioux's biography of Woolson, will be published in 2014 or 2015. The Constance Fenimore Woolson Society holds regular conferences and hosts panels at the annual meeting of the American Literature Association and the biennial Society for the Study of American Women Writers conference.

Woolson's Friendship with Henry James[edit]

The relationship between the two writers has prompted much speculation by biographers, especially Lyndall Gordon in her 1998 book, A Private Life of Henry James. Woolson’s most famous story, Miss Grief, has been read as a fictionalization of their friendship, though she had not yet met James when she wrote it. Recent novels such as Emma Tennant's Felony (2002), David Lodge's Author, Author (2004), Colm Toibin's The Master (2004), and Elizabeth Maguire's The Open Door (2008) have treated the still unclear relationship between Woolson and James.[108]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Moore, Rayburn S. (1932). Constance Fenimore Woolson. Ardent Media. p. 18. 
  2. ^ Woolson Bibliography http://blogs.bgsu.edu/cfwoolson/posts/home/bibliography/
  3. ^ Harper’s New Monthly Magazine 64 (December 1880): 28-45 (Ch. 1-2); 64 (January 1881): 218-238 (Ch. 3-4); 64 (February 1881): 399-415 (Ch. 5-6); 64 (March 1881): 556-572 (Ch. 7-8); 64 (April 1881): 718-727 (Ch. 9); 64 (May 1881): 847-863 (Ch. 10-11). Rpt. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1882; London: Sampson Low & Company, 1883; New York: Harper & Brothers, [1897?]; New York: Harper & Brothers (Biographical Edition) 1899; New York: Harper & Brothers, 1900, 1902; New York: Harper & Brothers, 1910; New York: Arno, 1982, 1997; Temecula, CA : Reprint Services Co., 1999.
  4. ^ Harper’s New Monthly Magazine 65 (November 1882): 907-917 (Ch. 1); 66 (December 1882): 93-105 (Ch. 2-3); 66 (January 1883): 243-250 (Ch. 4); 66 (February 1883): 405-414 (Ch. 5); 66 (March 1883): 564-571 (Ch. 6); 66 (April 1883): 749-764 (Ch. 7). Rpt. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1883; London: Sampson Low & Company, 1883; New York: Harper & Brothers, 1911; in For The Major and Selected Short Stories, edited by Rayburn S. Moore. New Haven, CT: New College and UP, 1967; New York: AMS, 1970. Rpt. Constance Fenimore Woolson: Per il Maggiore, edited and translated by Edoardo Grego. Palermo, Italy: Sellerio, 2005.
  5. ^ Harper’s New Monthly Magazine 70 (January 1885): 246-264 (Ch. 1); 70 (February 1885): 466-483 (Ch. 2-3); 70 (March 1885): 613-631 (Ch. 4-5); 70 (April 1885): 781-799 (Ch. 6); 70 (May 1885): 879-896 (Ch. 7); 71 (June 1885): 102-121 (Ch. 8); 71 (July 1885): 284-304 (Ch. 9-10); 71 (August 1885): 451-473 (Ch. 11-13); 71 (September 1885): 522-546 (Ch. 14-15); 71 (October 1885): 691-713 (Ch. 16-18); 71 (November 1885): 901-908 (Ch. 19); 72 (December 1885): 115-124 (Ch. 20); 72 (January 1886): 188-210 (Ch. 21-23); 72 (February 1886): 382-404 (Ch. 24-25); 72 (March 1886): 527-545 (Ch. 26-28); 72 (April 1886): 774-788 (Ch. 29); 72 (May 1886): 949-968 (Ch. 30-32). Rpt. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1886, 1898; London: Sampson Low & Company, 1886; Temecula, CA : Reprint Services Co., 1999.
  6. ^ Harper’s New Monthly Magazine 78 (January 1889): 240-255 (Ch. 1-4); 78 (February 1889): 435-452 (Ch. 5-8); 78 (March 1889): 598-610 (Ch. 9-12); 78 (April 1889): 703-722 (Ch. 13-16); 78 (May 1889): 951-958 (Ch. 17-18); 79 (June 1889): 114-123 (Ch. 19-21); 79 (July 1889): 265-282 (Ch. 22-26); 79 (August 1889): 415-431 (Ch. 27-30); 79 (September 1889): 583-599 (Ch. 31-35). Rpt. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1889; London: Sampson Low & Company, 1889; New York: Harper & Brothers, 1900; Temecula, CA : Reprint Services Co., 1999.
  7. ^ Harper’s New Monthly Magazine 86 (January 1893): 198-211 (Ch. 1-2); 86 (February 1893): 438-454 (Ch. 3-4); 86 (March 1893): 596-613 (Ch. 5-7); 86 (April 1893): 753-770 (Ch. 8-9); 86 (May 1893): 882-897 (Ch. 10-12); 87 (June 1893): 140-149 (Ch.13-14); 87 (July 1893): 276-286 (Ch. 15-17); 87 (August 1893): 414-423 (Ch. 18-19); 87 (September 1893): 595-602 (Ch. 20-21); 87 (October 1893): 755-770 (Ch. 22-24). Rpt. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1894; London: Osgood, McLlvaine & Company, 1894; Upper Saddle River, NJ: Literature house, 1970, 1984.
  8. ^ Harper’s Bazar 3 (December 31, 1870): 842. Rpt. Benedict 3: 272.
  9. ^ In Memoriam of George S. Benedict. [n. p.: n. p.], 1871: 80. Rpt. Benedict 3: 649-650.
  10. ^ In Memoriam of George S. Benedict. [n. p.: n. p.], 1871. Rpt. Benedict 4(1932): 495.
  11. ^ In Memoriam of George S. Benedict. [n.p.: n.p.], 1871.
  12. ^ Lippincott’s Magazine 9 (January 1872): 98. Reprint. Benedict 1: 75-77.
  13. ^ Appletons’ Journal 7 (March 9, 1872): 273. Rpt. New York Evangelist 61:42 (October 16, 1890): 6; Benedict 2: 83-85; in American Poetry: The Nineteenth Century, edited by John Hollander. New York: Library of America, 1993: 393-394.
  14. ^ Appletons’ Journal 7 (June 22, 1872): 686. Rpt. Benedict 1: 284; Benedict 4 (1932): 418.
  15. ^ Old and New 5 (January 1872): 61. Reprint. Benedict 4 (1932): 427.
  16. ^ Massachusetts Ploughman and New England Journal of Agriculture. 31:35 (May 25, 1872): 4; The Galaxy 13 (June 1872): 816. Reprint. Benedict 4 (1932): 426; Nineteenth-Century American Women Poets, edited by Paula Bennett. Oxford: Blackwell, 1998.
  17. ^ The Atlantic Monthly 30 (October 1872): 461. Rpt. Benedict 3: 651; Benedict 4 (1932): 548-549.
  18. ^ Harper’s New Monthly Magazine 45 (August 1872): 444. Reprint. Benedict 4 (1932): 428.
  19. ^ Appletons’ Journal 8 (October 12, 1872): 413. Reprint. Benedict 1: 190; Benedict 4 (1932): 429; in The Anthology of Western Reserve Literature, edited by David R. Anderson and Gladys Haddad. Kent, OH: Kent State UP, 1992.
  20. ^ The New York Evening Mail, September 14, 1872: 1.
  21. ^ Harper’s New Monthly Magazine 45 (October 1872): 753. Reprint. The Chautauquan 18:1 (October 1893): 122.
  22. ^ Appletons’ Journal 8:196 (December 28, 1872): 724.
  23. ^ Harper’s New Monthly Magazine 45 (July 1872): 168. Reprint. Benedict 1: 198-199; Benedict 4 (1932): 413-414.
  24. ^ Ohio Farmer 22:22 (April 12, 1873): 346; The Atlantic Monthly 31 (June 1873): 669-670. Reprint. Benedict 2: 85-87; Benedict 4 (1932): 85-87.
  25. ^ Appletons’ Journal 10 (July 12, 1873): 33-34. Reprint. Benedict 4 (1932): 415-416.
  26. ^ Harper’s Bazar 6 (February 8, 1873): 90.
  27. ^ Appletons’ Journal 4 (February 8, 1873): 210.
  28. ^ Harper’s New Monthly Magazine 46 (March 18, 1873): 508. Reprint. Benedict 4 (1932): 77-79.
  29. ^ Ohio Farmer 22:15 (April 12, 1873): 234; Lippincott’s Magazine 6 (February 1873): 59-60. Rpt. Benedict 4 (1932): 542-544.
  30. ^ Appletons’ Journal 10 (October 4, 1873): 419.
  31. ^ Appletons’ Journal 10 (November 8, 1873): 597.
  32. ^ Harper’s New Monthly Magazine 47 (July 1873): 274.
  33. ^ Appletons’ Journal 10 (September 6, 1873): 289-290. Reprint. Benedict 1: 239-241; Benedict 4 (1932): 464-467.
  34. ^ Appletons’ Journal 10 (December 6, 1873): 723. Reprint. Benedict 4 (1932): 547-548.
  35. ^ Harper’s New Monthly Magazine 47 (October 1873): 727. Reprint. Benedict 4 (1932): 544-545.
  36. ^ Appletons’ Journal 12 (July 11, 1874): 33-34. Reprint. Benedict 1: 236-238; Benedict 4 (1932): 459-462.
  37. ^ Appletons’ Journal 12 (September 5, 1874): 289-290.
  38. ^ Appletons’ Journal 12 (October 17, 1874): 500. Reprint. Benedict 4 (1932): 430.
  39. ^ Appletons’ Journal 11 (March 21, 1874): 372. Reprint. Saturday Evening Post 53:37 (April 11, 1874): 3; Benedict 1: 235; Benedict 4 (1932): 463; in American Anthology, edited by Edmund Stedman. Boston, MA: Riverside, 1900: 460-461; in The Home Book of Verse, edited by Burton Stevenson. Boston: Henry Holt, 1953.
  40. ^ The Galaxy 18 (October 1874): 482-483. Reprint. Benedict 1: 232; Benedict 4 (1932): 458-59; in American Poetry: The Nineteenth Century, edited by John Hollander. New York: Library of America, 1993. Vol. 2: 394-95; in Constance Fenimore Woolson: Selected Stories and Travel Narratives, edited by Victoria Brehm and Sharon Dean. Knoxville, TN: U of Tennessee P, 2004.
  41. ^ Harper’s New Monthly Magazine 50 (December 1874): 66. Reprint. Benedict 1: 230; Benedict 4 (1932): 457-58.
  42. ^ Harper’s New Monthly Magazine 50 (December 1874): 24.
  43. ^ Harper’s New Monthly Magazine 50 (January 1875): 171.
  44. ^ Appletons’ Journal 4 (December 4, 1875): 705-06.
  45. ^ Appletons’ Journal 1 n.s. (September 18, 1876): 282.
  46. ^ Appletons’ Journal 1 n.s. (July 1876): 47-48.
  47. ^ Appletons’ Journal 1 n.s. (December 1876): 537. Reprint. Benedict 3: 225-26.
  48. ^ Harper’s Bazar 9 (July 8, 1876): 433. Reprint. Benedict 3: 133-134; Benedict 4:(1932): 499.
  49. ^ Harper’s Bazar 9 (April 1, 1876): 210. Rpt. Benedict 3: 630.
  50. ^ The New Century for Woman No. 2 (May 20, 1876): 1. Rpt. Nineteenth-Century American Women Poets, edited by Paula Bennett. Oxford: Blackwell, 1998.
  51. ^ Appletons’ Journal 15 (May 20, 1876): 656. Rpt. Saturday Evening Post 55:49 (July 1, 1876): 8; Zion’s Herald 66:51 (December 19, 1888): 406; Benedict 2: 79-81; Benedict 4 (1932): 79-81.
  52. ^ Harper’s New Monthly Magazine 53 (July 1876): 216. Rpt. The Independent 28:1453 (October 5, 1876): 27.
  53. ^ The New Century for Woman No. 9 (July 8, 1876): 67.
  54. ^ Appletons’ Journal 2 n.s. (June 1877): 539. Rpt. Benedict 2: 83; Benedict 4 (1932): 83.
  55. ^ Appletons’ Journal 2 n.s. (January 1877): 60-67; 2 n.s. (February 1877): 140-147. Reprint. New York: Appleton and Company, 1877, 1885, 1890, 1893; Alexandria, VA: Chadwick-Healey, 1996; She Wields a Pen: American Women Poets of the Nineteenth Century, edited by Janet Gray. Iowa City, IA: U of Iowa P, 1997.
  56. ^ Appletons’ Journal 3 n.s. (September 1877): 270.
  57. ^ Harper’s Bazar 11 (September 7, 1878): 578.
  58. ^ Appletons’ Journal 5 n.s. (September 1878): 376.
  59. ^ Harper’s New Monthly Magazine 68 (January 1884): 216. Reprint. New York Evangelist 55:4 (January 24, 1884): 6; Benedict 2: 178; Benedict 4 (1932): 178; in Constance Fenimore Woolson: Selected Stories and Travel Narratives, edited by Victoria Brehm and Sharon Dean. Knoxville, TN: U of Tennessee P, 2004.
  60. ^ Holograph in American War Ballads and Lyrics. New York: Putnam, 1889. Reprint. Benedict 3: 224-25.
  61. ^ Current Literature 4:3 (March 1890): 224.
  62. ^ Benedict 4 (1932): 417. Reprint. In Constance Fenimore Woolson: Selected Stories and Travel Narratives, edited by Victoria Brehm and Sharon Dean. Knoxville, TN: U of Tennessee P, 2004.
  63. ^ Benedict 4 (1932): 419.
  64. ^ Benedict 3: 630.
  65. ^ Benedict 4 (1932): 496.
  66. ^ Benedict 3: 650.
  67. ^ Benedict 4 (1932): 546-547.
  68. ^ Benedict 4(1932): 497-98.
  69. ^ Benedict 2: 81-82.
  70. ^ Holograph ms. Clare Benedict Collection, Folder 82. Western Reserve Historical Society, Cleveland, Ohio
  71. ^ Miss Woolson’s Poetry Book, Constance Fenimore Woolson Papers, Container 3, Folder 41. Western Reserve Historical Society, Cleveland, Ohio.
  72. ^ Miss Woolson’s Poetry Book, Constance Fenimore Woolson Papers, Container 3, Folder 41. Western Reserve Historical Society, Cleveland, Ohio.
  73. ^ Harper’s New Monthly Magazine 41 (July 1870): 282- 85. Rpt. Benedict 1: 268-76.
  74. ^ Putnam’s Magazine n.s. 6 (July 1870): 62-69. Rpt. Benedict 1: 278-83 and 2 (1932): 420-25.
  75. ^ Supplement to The Daily Cleveland Herald, Dec. 24, 1870. Rpt. Benedict 1: 316-18, 325-26.
  76. ^ The Daily Cleveland Herald, Jan. 10, 1871. Rpt. Benedict 1: 319-21, 325.
  77. ^ Supplement to The Daily Cleveland Herald, Jan. 14, 1871. Rpt. Benedict 1: 326-29.
  78. ^ Supplement to The Daily Cleveland Herald, Jan. 21, 1871. Rpt. Benedict 1: 321-25.
  79. ^ Supplement to The Daily Cleveland Herald, Jan. 28, 1871. Rpt. Benedict 1: 329-30.
  80. ^ Supplement to The Daily Cleveland Herald, Feb. 4, 1871. Rpt. Benedict 1: 330-32.
  81. ^ Appletons’ Journal 6 (Sept. 9, 1871): 290-93.
  82. ^ Harper’s New Monthly Magazine 44 (Dec. 1871): 20-30. Rpt. Benedict 1: 49-57.
  83. ^ Harper’s New Monthly Magazine 45 (July 1872): 161-68.
  84. ^ Appletons’ Journal 8 (July 27, 1872): 85-92.
  85. ^ Harper’s New Monthly Magazine 45 (Sept. 1872): 518-33. Rpt. Constance Fenimore Woolson: Selected Stories and Travel Narratives. Ed. Victoria Brehm and Sharon Dean. Knoxville: U of Tennessee P, 2004.
  86. ^ Appletons’ Journal 9 (Mar. 8, 1873): 321-22. Rpt. Picturesque America. Ed. William Cullen Bryant. 2 vols. New York: Appleton, 1876. 1: 279-91. Benedict 1: 200-01.
  87. ^ Harper’s New Monthly Magazine 47 (June 1873): 27-36.
  88. ^ Lippincott’s Magazine 7 (Nov. 1873): 606-11.
  89. ^ Appletons’ Journal 11 (May 16, 1874): 614-16.
  90. ^ Harper’s New Monthly Magazine 50 (Dec. 1874): 1-25 (Part I); 50 (Jan. 1875): 165-85 (Part II). Rpt. Constance Fenimore Woolson: Selected Stories and Travel Narratives. Ed. Victoria Brehm and Sharon Dean. Knoxville: U of Tennessee P, 2004.
  91. ^ Harper’s New Monthly Magazine 50 (Apr. 1875): 617-36.
  92. ^ Harper’s New Monthly Magazine 52 (Dec. 1875): 1-24.
  93. ^ Picturesque America.'Picturesque America. Ed. William Cullen Bryant. 2 vols. New York: Appleton, 1876. 1: 393-411.
  94. ^ Picturesque America. Ed. William Cullen Bryant. 2 vols. New York: Appleton, 1876. 1: 279-91.
  95. ^ Picturesque America. Ed. William Cullen Bryant. 2 vols. New York: Appleton, 1876. 1: 510-49. Partial rpt. “The Spirit of the Lakes.” The Mentor 8 (October 1920): 34.
  96. ^ Picturesque America. Ed. William Cullen Bryant. 2 vols. New York: Appleton, 1876. 2: 146-167.
  97. ^ Harper’s New Monthly Magazine 52 (Jan. 1876): 161-79.
  98. ^ Christian Union 22: 9 (Sept. 1, 1880): 165-66.
  99. ^ The Christian Union 24 (July 27, 1881): 76-77. Rpt. Benedict 2: 247-56; Benedict 4 (1932): 247-56.
  100. ^ Harper’s New Monthly Magazine 68 (Jan. 1884): 189-216 (Ch. 1); 68 (Feb. 1884): 367-91 (Ch. 2). Rpt. Mentone, Cairo, and Corfu. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1896. Benedict 2: 163-77; Benedict 4 (1932): 163-77; Constance Fenimore Woolson: Selected Stories and Travel Narratives. Ed. Victoria Brehm and Sharon Dean. Knoxville: U of Tennessee P, 2004.
  101. ^ Harper’s New Monthly Magazine 83 (Oct.-Nov. 1891): 651-74, 828-55. Rpt. Mentone, Cairo, and Corfu. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1896. Benedict 2: 344-63; Benedict 4 (1932): 344-63; Constance Fenimore Woolson: Selected Stories and Travel Narratives'. Ed. Victoria Brehm and Sharon Dean. Knoxville: U of Tennessee P, 2004.
  102. ^ Harper’s New Monthly Magazine 85 (Aug. 1892): 351-370. Rpt. Mentone, Cairo, and Corfu. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1896. Benedict 2: 307-39; Benedict 4 (1932): 307-39.
  103. ^ New York: Harper & Brothers, 1896.
  104. ^ Kern, John Dwight. Constance Fenimore Woolson: Literary Pioneer. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1934.
  105. ^ See, for example: Sharon L. Dean, Constance Fenimore Woolson: Homeward Bound. Knoxville: U of Tennessee P, 1995; Cheryl B. Torsney, Constance Fenimore Woolson: The Grief of Artistry. Athens: U of Georgia P, 1989; Joan Weimer, ed. and intro. Women Artists, Women Exiles: 'Miss Grief' and Other Stories. New Brunswick: Rutgers UP, 1988; and Kristin Comment, "Lesbian 'Impossibilities' of Miss Grief's 'Armour.'" Constance Fenimore Woolson's Nineteenth Century: Essays. Ed. Victoria Brehm. Detroit, MI: Wayne State UP, 2001. 207-23.
  106. ^ See for instance: Kathleen Diffley, ed. Witness to Reconstruction: Constance Fenimore Woolson and the Postbellum South, 1873-1894. Jackson: UP of Mississippi, 2011; Anne E. Boyd, "Tourism, Imperialism, and Hybridity in the Reconstruction South: Woolson's Rodman the Keeper: Southern Sketches." Southern Literary Journal 43.2 (Spring 2011): 12-31; and Neill Matheson, "Constance Fenimore Woolson's Anthropology of Desire." Legacy 26.1 (2009): 48-68.
  107. ^ Sharon L. Dean, ed. The Complete Letters of Constance Fenimore Woolson. Gainesville: UP of Florida, 2012.
  108. ^ Alan Hollinghurst, 'The Middle Fears', The Guardian, September 4, 2004 [1]

External links[edit]