|From open to closed:|
|Voicelessness (full airstream)|
|Breathy voice (murmur)|
|Modal voice (maximum vibration)|
|Creaky voice (restricted airstream)|
|Glottalized (blocked airstream)|
|Faucalized voice ("hollow")|
|Harsh voice ("pressed")|
|Strident (harsh trilled)|
In linguistics, creaky voice (sometimes called laryngealisation, pulse phonation, vocal fry, or glottal fry), is a special kind of phonation in which the arytenoid cartilages in the larynx are drawn together; as a result, the vocal folds are compressed rather tightly, becoming relatively slack and compact. They vibrate irregularly at 20–50 pulses per second, about two octaves below the frequency of normal voicing, and the airflow through the glottis is very slow. However, although creaky voice may occur with very low pitch, as at the end of a long intonation unit, it can occur with any pitch.
A slight degree of laryngealisation, occurring in some Korean consonants for example, is called "stiff voice". The Danish prosodic feature stød is an example of a form of laryngealisation that has a phonemic function. Creaky voice was reported to be prevalent in American English as spoken in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. However, it was also reported that use of creaky voice (vocal fry) has possibly been spreading among American women across the nation.
Further reading 
- Titze, I. R. (2008). "The Human Instrument". Scientific American 298 (1): 94–101. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0108-94. PMID 18225701.
- Titze, I. R. (1994). Principles of Voice Production. Prentice Hall. ISBN 978-0-13-717893-3.
- Paulson, T. (2005-05-26). "A Northwest dialect? That's 'Goofy,' some say". SeattlePI.
- Banse, T. (2005-07-22). "Pacific Northwest Dialect Spoken Here". Kuow.org.
- Yuasa, I. P. (2010). "Creaky Voice: A New Feminine Voice Quality for Young Urban-Oriented Upwardly Mobile American Women?". American Speech 85 (3): 315–337. doi:10.1215/00031283-2010-018.
- Wolk, L.; Abdelli-Beruhe, N. B.; Slavin, D. (2012). "Habitual Use of Vocal Fry in Young Adult Female Speakers". Journal of Voice 26 (3): e111–e116. doi:10.1016/j.jvoice.2011.04.007. PMID 21917418.
- Ashby, M.; Maidment, J. A. (2005). Introducing Phonetic Science. Cambridge University Press. p. 98. ISBN 978-0-521-00496-1. Retrieved 2012-06-30.
- The International Phonetic Alphabet in Unicode, UCL Division of Psychology & Language Sciences