Daisaku Ikeda

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Not to be confused with Daisuke Ikeda.
Daisaku Ikeda
President of Soka Gakkai International
Assumed office
26 January 1975
Honorary President of Soka Gakkai
Assumed office
24 April 1979
3rd President of Soka Gakkai
In office
3 May 1960 – 23 April 1979
Preceded by Jōsei Toda
Succeeded by Hiroshi Hojo (北条浩)
Personal details
Born (1928-01-02) 2 January 1928 (age 87)
Ōta, Tokyo, Japan
Spouse(s) Kaneko Ikeda (池田香峯子)
Children Hiromasa Ikeda (池田博正)
Takahiro Ikeda (池田尊弘)

Official Website

Alma mater Fuji Junior College (present-day Tokyo Fuji University)[1]

Daisaku Ikeda (池田 大作 Ikeda Daisaku?, born January 2, 1928, Japan) is the spiritual leader and former president of the Nichiren Buddhist Soka Gakkai, the largest of Japan's new religious movements, and also one of the most controversial.[2] Ikeda is also the founding president of the movement's international offshoot, Soka Gakkai International (SGI), which, according to its own numbers, is the world's largest Buddhist lay organization with approximately 12 million practitioners in 192 countries and regions.[3] Some of the books he has authored, especially "The Human Revolution" (1965) have gained canonical status within the movement.

Ikeda was described in 1996 by the Los Angeles Times as a "puzzle of conflicting perceptions," ranging from "Japan’s most powerful man" to a "threat to democracy;" an "inspired teacher" to a "man of deep learning."[4] The Soka Gakkai movement has been characterized as being centered on a cult of personality around Ikeda.[5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12]


Early life[edit]

Ikeda was born the fifth son of seaweed farmers in Ōta, Tokyo.[13] His four older brothers fought in World War II, during which the eldest, Kiichi, was killed in action[14] and his familyʼs home destroyed.[15]

Initial involvement with the Soka Gakkai[edit]

In August 1947, Ikeda met Josei Toda at a Soka Gakkai discussion meeting and joined the organization that month. In March 1948, Ikeda graduated from Toyo Trade School, and the following month entered the night school extension of Taisei Gakuin (present-day Tokyo Fuji University) where he majored in political science.[15] Over the next few years, he worked for various Toda-owned enterprises, particularly Nihon Shogakkan, a publishing house where Ikeda served as editor of a children’s magazine.[15]

Ikeda was a charter member of the Soka Gakkai's Youth Division and appointed its chief of staff in 1954.[16]:85[17]:77

In 1952, Ikeda was one of the leaders in harassing Nichiren Shōshū priest Jimon Ogasawara. During the war, Ogasawara had allegedly cooperated with the authorities against Soka Gakkai's founder Tsunesaburō Makiguchi, who had died, imprisoned, before the end of the war. Ikeda and Toda headed a group of 4,000 men belonging to the Youth Division to the Taiseki-ji, the Nichiren Shōshū head temple. When Ogasawara initially refused to apologize, the men tore off his vestments and tagged him with a placard reading "racoon monk."[n 1][18] He was then forcibly carried to Makiguchi's grave, where he was made to sign a written apology.[19][20]:698–711[21]:186:705–711[22]

In April 1957, a group of Young Men’s Division members who were campaigning for a Soka Gakkai electoral candidate were arrested for allegedly distributing money, cigarettes and candies at supporters’ residences. Ikeda was later arrested in Osaka in his capacity as Soka Gakkai Youth Division Chief of Staff for allegedly overseeing these activities. Ikeda spent two weeks in jail and was cleared of all charges in January 1962.[23]

Ikeda regarded Toda as his spiritual mentor and writes that he influenced him through "the profound compassion that characterized each of his interactions."[24]

Presidency after Toda[edit]

After Toda's death in 1958, Ikeda succeeded his mentor to become the third president of the Soka Gakkai in 1960, after which he began to travel abroad to expand the Soka Gakkai movement.[25] The expansion of the Soka Gakkai was, in Ikeda’s words, "Toda’s will for the future."[26] With his assumption of the Soka Gakkai presidency, Ikeda "continued the task begun by [the Soka Gakkai founder] Makiguchi of fusing the ideas and principles of educational pragmatism with the elements of Buddhist doctrine."[27]

While Soka Gakkai saw its most dramatic growth after the World War II under the leadership of Toda, Ikeda led the international growth of the Soka Gakai and turned it into what is considered the largest, most diverse international lay Buddhist association in the world.[3][28] He reformed many of the organizations more controversial practices, such as the aggressive and sometimes forced conversions (shakubuku (折伏)) the group was known for in Japan and did much to improve the organization's public image, though it was still sometimes viewed with suspicion in Japan.[29][30][31][32][33]

By the 1970s Ikeda's leadership had expanded the Soka Gakkai into an international lay Buddhist movement increasingly active in peace, cultural and educational activities and shifted the organization away from "a very rigid fundamentalistic and evangelical stance."[34] For example, in September, 1974, Ikeda visited the former Soviet Union, and met with the premier, Aleksey N. Kosygin, on September 17 of that year. "We must abandon the very idea of war," said Kosygin. "It is meaningless. If we stop preparing for war and prepare instead for peace, we can produce food instead of armaments." He asked Ikeda, "Mr. Ikeda, what is your basic ideology?" Ikeda replied, "I believe in peace, culture and education -- the underlying basis of which is humanism." "I have a high regard for those values," Kosygin said. "We need to realize them here in the Soviet Union as well."[35][36]:415[37] Ikeda visited with United States Secretary of State Henry Kissinger in 1975 to "urge the de-escalation of nuclear tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union."[38]

In 1975, at an international meeting of Soka Gakkai representatives held in Guam, the Soka Gakkai International (SGI) was formed to support overseas members. Ikeda took a leading role in this development and became founding president of the SGI.[17]:128

Resignation from Soka Gakkai presidency[edit]

In 1979, Ikeda resigned as the president of Soka Gakkai, accepting responsibility for the organization's purported deviation from Nichiren Shōshū doctrines and accompanying conflict with the priesthood.[39] Nichiren Shōshū was the Buddhist denomination to which Soka Gakkai had belonged since its founding, but the relationship between the two was often strained. Hiroshi Hojo succeeded Ikeda as the Soka Gakkai president, and Ikeda remained president of the SGI. Ikeda was also made honorary president of the Soka Gakkai.[40]

Ikeda and the Soka Gakkai was excommunicated by Nichiren Shoshu on November 28, 1991[41][42][43][44] and on August 11, 1992.[45][46] Following the group's excommunication, Soka Gakkai members began to describe their group as Buddhism's first Protestant movement.[47]

Under Ikeda's leadership, SGI has developed as a broad-based grassroots peace movement around the world. He has fostered among SGI members a strong ethos of responsibility for the society with global citizenship spirit.[48]


Ikeda has founded several institutions, including Soka University in Japan and Soka University of America; Soka primary to secondary schools in Japan, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Brazil and Singapore; the Victor Hugo House of Literature, in France; the International Committee of Artists for Peace in the US; the Min-On Concert Association in Japan; the Tokyo Fuji Art Museum in Japan; the Institute of Oriental Philosophy in Japan with offices in France, Hong Hong, India, Russia and the United Kingdom; and the Toda Institute for Global Peace and Policy Research in Japan and the United States; and the Ikeda Center for Peace, Learning, and Dialogue.[49]

In 1994, the Soka Gakkai collaborated with the Simon Wiesenthal Center, a United States-based Jewish human rights organization, to combat anti-Semitism in Japan. In an interview, Rabbi Abraham Cooper of the Simon Wiesenthal Center stated that the center “was getting nowhere” after reaching out to the Japanese media about Japanese anti-Semitism. “The truth is, the only partners we found to help us bring our concerns to the Japanese public were the people from Soka University under the leadership of Daisaku Ikeda,” he said. That connection led to a joint project with the Soka Gakkai to develop a Japanese version of the traveling Holocaust exhibition ‘The Courage to Remember’ that has been seen by more than two million people.[17]

Ikeda has guided Soka Gakkai's support of, and involvement in, the New Komeito Party (Komeito),[27] a Japanese political party which, as of 2007, is part of a governing coalition with the Liberal Democratic Party in Japan. He has supported the Earth Charter Initiative[50] and a documentary film about the environment, A Quiet Revolution.

The "Gandhi, King, Ikeda: A Legacy of Building Peace" exhibition showcases the peace activism of Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Luther King Jr, and Ikeda. Lawrence Carter, an ordained Baptist minister and dean of the Martin Luther King Jr. Chapel at Morehouse College in Atlanta,[51][52] initiated the annual Gandhi, King, Ikeda Community Builders prize as a way of extolling those whose actions for peace have cut across human boundaries. When a Shūkan Shinchō article criticized these aspects of the award, Carter wrote a protest to the tabloid:

"Controversy" is an inevitable partner of greatness. No one who challenges the established order is free of it. Gandhi had his detractors, as did Dr. King. Dr. Ikeda is no exception. Controversy camouflages the intense resistance of entrenched authority to conceding their special status and privilege. "Insults" are the weapons of the morally weak; "slander" is the tool of the spiritually bereft. Controversy is testament to the noble work of these three individuals in their respective societies.[53]

The houses of representatives of Georgia,[54] Missouri,[55] Illinois,[56][57] and the United States[58] have passed resolutions that recognize the service and dedication of Daisaku Ikeda "who has dedicated his entire life to building peace and promoting human rights through education and cultural exchange with deep conviction in the shared humanity of our entire global family."[58] The state of Missouri praised Ikeda and his value of "education and culture as the prerequisites for the creation of true peace in which the dignity and fundamental rights of all people are respected."[55]

He is an honorary member of the Club of Rome.[59]

International initiatives[edit]

Ikeda’s meetings with public figures have raised awareness of the SGI’s Buddhist movement in host countries, facilitated relationships with cultural and educational institutions he has founded, and lent support, for example, to SGI-sponsored traveling exhibits on global issues.[60] These meetings and relationships have been described by some as citizen diplomacy for their contributions to diplomatic as well as intercultural ties between Japan and other countries.[61][62][63]

Coverage in SGI publications suggests Ikeda's meetings and dialogues illustrate the SGI movement’s commitment to peace, environmental concerns and humanitarianism.[64] Observers suggest the body of literature chronicling Ikeda’s more than 7,000 dialogues[65] provides SGI members with a personal education and model of citizen diplomacy[66][67] and, from a scholarly view, represents “a new current in interculturalism and educational philosophy.”[68]

Ikeda’s first meeting with Nelson Mandela in 1990 led to SGI-sponsored anti-apartheid lectures, a traveling exhibit and student exchanges at the university level.[69]

American Civil Rights pioneer Rosa Parks chose as her favorite photograph one of her meeting with Ikeda in 1993. She explained that:

I can’t think of a more important moment in my life. ... [Ikeda] said this meeting, between the two of us, was very special for him. It was for me, too. In his concern for human rights, Dr. Ikeda is ahead of many people in this century. He is a calm spirit, a humble man, a man of great spiritual enlightenment. We met for about an hour and talked about my life and challenges concerning the youth in our countries. ... Our meeting can serve as a model for anyone. So the photograph of our first meeting is very important because it is history in the making.[70]

Sino-Japanese relations[edit]

Ikeda made several visits to China and met with Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai in 1974. The visits led to the establishment of cultural exchanges of art, dance and music between China and Japan and opened academic exchanges between Chinese educational institutions and Soka University.[69] Chinese media describe Ikeda as an early proponent of normalizing diplomatic relations between China and Japan in the 1970s, citing his 1968 proposal that drew condemnation by some and the interest of others including Zhou Enlai.[71][72] It was said that Zhou Enlai entrusted Ikeda with ensuring that "Sino-Japanese friendship would continue for generations to come."[73]

Since 1975 cultural exchanges have continued between the Min-On Concert Association, founded by Ikeda, and institutions including the Chinese People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries.[74][75] After Ikeda’s 1984 visit to China and meetings with public figures including Chinese Communist Party Leader Hu Yaobang and Deng Yingchao, an observer estimated that Ikeda’s 1968 proposal may have contributed to Japanese public sentiment on closer diplomatic ties with China and this cultivation of educational and cultural ties helped strengthen state relations.[76]

Honorary doctorates and professorships[edit]

Ikeda received his 300th academic honor from the University of Massachusetts Boston on November 21, 2010.[77] He has said that "The academic honors I have accepted have all been on behalf of the members of SGI around the world."[78]

Other awards[edit]

  • United Nations Peace Award (1983, USA)[116][117]
  • Rosa Parks Humanitarian Award (1993, USA)[118][119]
  • International Tolerance Award from the Simon Wiesenthal Center (1993, Los Angeles, Calif.)[117][119]
  • Tagore Peace Award (1997, India)[120]
  • Rizal International Peace Award (1998, the Philippines) from the Knights of Rizal[121]
  • International Literary Award for Understanding and Friendship (2003, Beijing, China) from the China Literature Foundation and Chinese Writersʼ Association [122]
  • Jamnalal Bajaj Award (2005, India) for "Outstanding Contribution in Promotion of Gandhian Values Outside India by Individuals other than Indian Citizens"[123]
  • Order of Friendship (2008, Russia)[124]
  • Gold Medal for Peace with Justice from the Sydney Peace Foundation (2009, Australia)[125][126]
  • Indology Award (2011, India) for “outstanding contribution in the field of Indic research and Oriental wisdom” from Motilal Banarsidass Publishers[127]
  • Golden Heart Award (2012, the Philippines) from the Knights of Rizal [128]

Personal life[edit]

Ikeda lives in Tokyo with his wife, Kaneko (born 1932), whom he married on May 3, 1952. He has three sons, Hiromasa (born 1953; vice president of Soka Gakkai),[129] Shirohisa (1955–1984), and Takahiro (born 1958).


Ikeda and Soka Gakkai have been the frequent targets of allegations that the group fosters a cult of personality centered on Ikeda.[130][131][132][133][134][135][136][137]

In 1984, British journalist and political commentator Polly Toynbee visited Ikeda at the invitation of the SGI. According to Peter Popham, writing about Tokyo architecture and culture, Ikeda "was hoping to tighten the public connection between himself and Polly Toynbee's famous grandfather, Arnold Toynbee, the prophet of the rise of the East."[138] Polly Toynbeee wrote that she had never met "anyone who exudes such an aura of absolute power as Mr. Ikeda" and others she had talked to “felt they had been drawn into endorsing [Ikeda].”[139][140] In The Guardian in May 1984, she wrote that she wished that her grandfather had not endorsed Choose Life: A Dialogue, his dialogue with Ikeda.[140]

A 1995 San Francisco Chronicle article titled "Japan Fears Another Religious Sect" outlined charges in Japan of "heavy-handed fund raising and proselytizing [by Soka Gakkai], as well as intimidating its foes and trying to grab political power".[141] It quotes Takashi Shokei, a professor at Meisei University, as describing Ikeda as "a power-hungry individual who intends to take control of the government and make Soka Gakkai the national religion"; the article describes a videotape made in 1993 of Ikeda "yelling and pounding on tables in anger and later railing against President Clinton for having refused to meet with him".[141]

A 1995 Time article criticized Daisaku Ikeda and Soka Gakkai, claiming that "according to a member who was present" Ikeda, as "honorary president and unquestioned commander" of Soka Gakkai, had said of Komeito: "This time, not the next time, [the election] is going to be about winning or losing. We cannot hesitate. We must conquer the country with one stroke."[142]

In 1999, The New York Times published an article on the uneasy rise of the New Komeito Party in Japan (funded largely by Ikeda and Soka Gakkai).[47] In response, a letter to the editor by Alfred Balitzer offered a more sympathetic portrayal of Soka Gakkai.[143]

Meetings with dictators[edit]

The Causeway Islands in Panama, site of the former "Mirador Ikeda" observation point

Ikeda was reportedly close friends with former Panamanian dictator Manuel Noriega. Noriega visited Taiseki-ji and hosted Ikeda on several visits to Panama. Both leaders praised each other's virtues in public statements.[32][144]:160 After a 1981 visit, Noriega named a scenic observation point on one of the Causeway Islands at the Pacific approach to the Panama Canal "Mirador Ikeda,"[145] and he presented Ikeda with the Order of Vasco Núñez de Balboa. Ikeda reprociated by naming a garden at a Soka Gakkai training facility at Shiraito after Noriega.[32] Friends of Noriega and anonymous American sources have alleged that Ikeda provided him with several million dollars' worth of assistance during the worst part of Noriega's crisis in 1987 and 1988, though Soka Gakkai spokesmen have repeatedly denied this.[146][147]

Ikeda also held meetings with Romanian General Secretary Nicolae Ceaușescu.


Ikeda is a prolific writer, peace activist and interpreter of Nichiren Buddhism.[148] He has authored several books, several which have been become canonical within Soka Gakkai, most prominently "The Human Revolution" (1972) (see below).

In 1976, "Choose Life: A Dialogue" (21世紀への対話) a record of dialogues and correspondences that began in 1971 between Ikeda and British historian Arnold J. Toynbee about the “convergence of East and West”[149] was published. As of 2012, the book had been translated and published in twenty-six languages.[150]

Some of Ikeda's children books have adapted into a series of anime movies, which have been telecast by the National Geographic Channel in India.[151][152][dead link]

Human Revolution[edit]

Ikeda's most well-known publication is the novel The Human Revolution (Ningen Kakumei), which was serialized in the Gakkai's Seikyo Shimbun. In his preface to The Human Revolution, the author describes the book as a “novelized biography of my mentor, Josei Toda.”[153]:vii In 1978, as the Gakkai entered a dispute with Nichiren Shoshu, the text of Human Revolution was altered in over 40 places.[154] The author writes that "the original narrative has been edited to bring it into line with recent developments in the history of Nichiren Buddhism, with changes and deletions in the presentation of the material" in the preface to the 2004 edition of The Human Revolution.[153]:x

Selected works[edit]

  • Life: An Enigma, a Precious Jewel, 1st edition, New York: Kodansha America, 1982; ISBN 978-0870114335
  • Moral Lessons of the Twentieth Century: Gorbachev and Ikeda on Buddhism and Communism with Mikhail Gorbachev, London and New York: I. B. Tauris, 2005; ISBN 9781845117733
  • My Recollections, Santa Monica, California: World Tribune Press, 1980; ISBN 978-0915678105
  • New Horizons in Eastern Humanism Buddhism, Confucianism and the Quest for Global Peace with Tu Weiming, London and New York: I. B. Tauris, 2011; ISBN 978-1-84885-593-9
  • Ode to the Grand Spirit: A dialogue Ode to the Grand Spirit: A Dialogue (Echoes and Reflections)" — with Chingiz Aitmatov, London and New York: I. B. Tauris, 2009; ISBN 978-1-84511-987-4
  • On Being Human: Where Ethics, Medicine, and Spirituality Converge with René Simard and Guy Bourgeault, Santa Monica, California: Middleway Press, 2003; ISBN 0-9723267-1-5
  • On Peace, Life and Philosophy with Henry Kissinger (tentative translation from Japanese), Heiwa to jinsei to tetsugaku o kataru,「平和」と「人生」と「哲学」を語る, Tokyo, Japan: Ushio Shuppansha, 1987; ISBN 978-4267011641
  • One by One: The World is Yours to Change, Sonoma, California: Dunhill Publishing; Paper/DVD edition, 2004; ISBN 978-1931501019
  • Over the Deep Blue Sea (children's book), Brian Wildsmith (Illustrator), New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1993, ISBN 978-0679841845
  • Planetary Citizenship: Your Values, Beliefs and Actions Can Shape A Sustainable World with Hazel Henderson, Santa Monica, California: Middleway Press, 2004; ISBN 0972326723/ISBN 978-0972326728
  • Rendezvous with nature: songs of peace / photographs by Daisaku Ikeda, Shizen to no taiwa: heiwa no shi, 自然との対話 平和の詩, Tokyo: Soka Gakkai, 2005; OCLC Number: 73228297
  • Revolutions to Green the Environment, to Grow the Human Heart: A Dialogue Between M.S. Swaminathan, Leader of the Ever-Green Revolution and Daisaku Ikeda, Proponent of the Human Revolution, Madras, India: East West Books, 2005; ISBN 978-8188661343
  • Search for a New Humanity: A Dialogue with Josef Derbolav, London and New York: I. B. Tauris, 2008; ISBN 978-1-84511-598-2
  • Soka Education: A Buddhist Vision for Teachers, Students and Parents, Santa Monica, California: Middleway Press, 2001; ISBN 0-9674697-4-0
  • Songs from My Heart, (1978), Weatherhill, ISBN 0-8348-0398-4, New York and Tokyo: Weatherhill, Reprint edition 1997; ISBN 0-8348-0398-4
  • Space and Eternal Life with Chandra Wickramasinghe, Newburyport, Massachusetts: Journeyman Press, 1998; ISBN 1-85172-060-X
  • The Cherry Tree (children's book), Brian Wildsmith (Illustrator), New York: Knopf Books for Young Readers, 1992; ISBN 978-0679826699
  • The Flower of Chinese Buddhism, Santa Monica, California: Middleway Press, 2009; ISBN 978-0977924547
  • The Human Revolution (The Human Revolution, #1-12), abridged two-book set, Santa Monica, California: World Tribune Press, 2008; ISBN 0-915678-77-2
  • The Inner Philosopher: Conversations on Philosophy’s Transformative Power with Lou Marinoff, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Dialogue Path Press, 2012; ISBN 978-1887917094
  • The Living Buddha: An Interpretive Biography, Santa Monica, California: Middleway Press, 2008; ISBN 978-0977924523
  • The New Human Revolution (an ongoing series) (30+ Volumes, this is an ongoing series), Santa Monica, California: World Tribune Press, 1995-; partial list of ISBN Vol.1 978-0-915678-33-4, Vol.2 978-0-915678-34-1, Vol.3 978-0-915678-35-8, Vol.4 978-0-915678-36-5, Vol.5 978-0-915678-37-2, Vol.6 978-0-915678-38-9, Vol.7 978-0-915678-39-6, Vol.8 978-0-915678-40-2, Vol.9 978-0-915678-41-9, Vol.10 978-0-915678-42-6, Vol.11 978-0-915678-43-3, Vol.12 978-0-915678-44-0, Vol.13 978-0-915678-45-7, Vol.14 978-0-915678-46-4, Vol.15 978-0-915678-47-1, Vol.16 978-0-915678-48-8, Vol.17 978-0-915678-49-5, Vol.18 978-0-915678-50-1, Vol.19 978-0-915678-51-8, Vol.20 978-0-915678-52-5, Vol.21 978-0-915678-53-2, Vol.22 978-0-915678-54-9, Vol.23 978-0-915678-55-6, Vol.24 978-0-915678-56-3
  • The Persistence of Religion: Comparative Perspectives on Modern Spirituality with Harvey Cox, London and New York: I. B. Tauris, 2009; ISBN 9781848851955 (Paperback), ISBN 9781848851948 (Hardback)
  • The Princess and the Moon (children's book), Brian Wildsmith (Illustrator), New York: Knopf Books for Young Readers, 1992; ISBN 978-0679836209
  • The Snow Country Prince (children's book), Brian Wildsmith (Illustrator), New York: Knopf Books for Young Readers, 1991; ISBN 978-0679919650
  • The Way of Youth: Buddhist Common Sense for Handling Life's Questions (with a foreword by Duncan Sheik), Santa Monica, California: Middleway Press, 2000, ISBN 9780967469706
  • The Wisdom of the Lotus Sutra (6 volumes), Santa Monica, California: World Tribune Press, 2000 (vols 1 & 2), 2001 (vol 3), 2002 (vol 4), 2003 (vols 5 & 6); ISBN 0-915678-69-1 (vol 1), 0-915678-70-5 (vol 2), 0-9-15678-71-3 (vol 3), 0-915678-72-1 (vol 4), 0-915678-73-X (vol 5), 0-915678-74-8 (vol 6)
  • Toward Creating an Age of Humanism with John Kenneth Galbraith (tentative translation from Japanese), Ningenshugi no dai seiki o, 人間主義の大世紀を―わが人生を飾れ, Tokyo, Japan: Ushio Shuppansha, 2005; ISBN 978-4267017308
  • Unlocking the Mysteries of Birth and Death: A Buddhist View of Life, 2nd edition, Santa Monica, California: Middleway Press, 2004; ISBN 978-0972326704


  1. ^ In Japanese folklore, the tanuki or Japanese raccoon dog is regarded as a sly and deceptive being with shapeshifting powers. The word is still used in contemporary Japanese to refer to slyness and deception. See the definition of tanuki in Kōjien (2nd ed.): 他人を欺くこと。また、そのひと。


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Further reading[edit]

  • Seager, Richard: Encountering the Dharma: Daisaku Ikeda, Sōka Gakkai, and the Globalization of Buddhism. University of California Press, 2006.

External links[edit]