Daisaku Ikeda

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Daisaku Ikeda
Daisaku Ikeda 1961.jpg
President of Sōka Gakkai International
Incumbent
Assumed office
26 January 1975
Honorary President of Sōka Gakkai
Incumbent
Assumed office
24 April 1979
President of Sōka Gakkai
In office
3 May 1960 – 23 April 1979
Preceded by Josei Toda
Succeeded by Hiroshi Hōjō (北条浩)
Personal details
Born (1928-01-02) 2 January 1928 (age 86)
Ōta, Tokyo, Japan
Spouse(s) Kaneko Ikeda (池田香峯子)
Children Hiromasa Ikeda (池田博正)
Takahiro Ikeda (池田尊弘)

Official Website

Alma mater Fuji Junior College (present-day Tokyo Fuji University)[1]

Daisaku Ikeda (池田 大作 Ikeda Daisaku?, born January 2, 1928, Japan) is the founder and current president of Sōka Gakkai International (SGI), the international offshoot of Sōka Gakkai, a Nichiren Buddhist lay association which has, by its own account, more than 12 million members.[2] In 1996, he was described in a Los Angeles Times article as a "puzzle of conflicting perceptions", ranging from "Japan's most powerful man" and a "threat to democracy", to an "inspired teacher" and "man of deep learning".[3] Ikeda and Soka Gakkai have been the frequent targets of criticism for fostering a cult of personality centered around Ikeda.[4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11]

Biography[edit]

Early life[edit]

Ikeda was born the fifth son of seaweed farmers in Ōta, Tokyo.[12] His four older brothers fought in World War II, during which the eldest, Kiichi, was killed in action[13] and his familyʼs home destroyed.[14] As a child, he suffered from poor health and tuberculosis and doctors predicted that he would not survive beyond the age of 30.[15]

Involvement with the Soka Gakkai[edit]

In August 1947, Ikeda met Jōsei Toda at a Sōka Gakkai discussion meeting and joined the organization that month. In April 1948, Ikeda entered the night school of Taisei Gakuin[14] (later Tokyo Fuji University). He left it in the same year[citation needed] and spent the next few years shifting his employment between various Toda-owned enterprises.[14] Ikeda was a charter member of the Soka Gakkai's Youth Division and it's leader by 1952.[16]:85[17]:77

In 1952, Ikeda was one of the leaders in violently harassing Nichiren Shoshu priest Jimon Ogasawara. Ogasawara had allegedly cooperated with the authorities during the war against Soka Gakkai's founder Tsunesaburo Makiguchi, who had died imprisoned, before the end of the war. Ikeda and Toda headed a group of 4,000 men belonging to the Youth Division to the Taiseki-ji, the Nichiren Shoshu head temple. When Ogasawara initially refused to apologize, the men tore off his vestments and tagged him with a placard reading "Racoon dog monk." He was then forcibly carried to Makiguchi's grave, where he was made to sign a written apology.[18][19]:698–711[20]:186 Ikeda later referred to the incident as an "act of kindness" because "the old priest, made to realize his apostasy, was grateful to Toda and Soka Gakkai and died a happy man."[18]

Ikeda regarded Toda as his spiritual mentor and writes that he influenced him through "the profound compassion that characterized each of his interactions".[21]

Presidency after Toda[edit]

After Toda's death in 1958, Ikeda succeeded his mentor to become the third President of Sōka Gakkai in 1960, after which he began to travel abroad to realize Toda's vision of expanding the Sōka Gakkai movement.[citation needed]

While Soka Gakkai saw its most dramatic growth after the World War II under the leadership of Toda, Ikeda led the international growth of the organization and turned it into what has been called the largest, most diverse international lay Buddhist association in the world.[22] He reformed many of the organizations more controversial practices, such as the aggressive and sometimes forced conversions (shakubuku (折伏)) the group was infamous for in Japan and did much to improve the organization's public image, though it was still widely viewed with suspicion in Japan.[23][24][25][26][27]

By the 1970s Ikeda's leadership had expanded the Soka Gakkai into an international lay Buddhist movement increasingly active in peace, cultural and educational activities and shifting away from "a very rigid fundamentalistic and evangelical stance."[28] In 1975, at an international meeting of member representatives held in Guam, Sōka Gakkai formed Sōka Gakkai International (SGI) to support its overseas membership. Ikeda took a leading role in this development and, at the request of the membership, became President of SGI.[17]:128

Resignation from Soka Gakkai[edit]

In 1979, Ikeda resigned as the president of Sōka Gakkai, accepting responsibility for its purported deviation from Nichiren Shōshū doctrines, and the accompanying conflict with the priesthood,.[29] Nichiren Shōshū was the Buddhist denomination to whom which Sōka Gakkai had belonged since its founding, but the relationship between the two was often a strained one. Ikeda was succeeded by Hiroshi Hōjō, but remained president of the SGI and was also made Sōka Gakkai Honorary President.[30] He, along with Sōka Gakkai, was excommunicated by Nichiren Shōshū on August 11, 1992.[31][32] SGI members often describe their group as Buddhism's first Protestant movement, since its excommunication by Nichiren Shōshū in 1991.[33]

Under Ikeda's leadership SGI has developed as a broad-based grassroots peace movement around the world. He has fostered among SGI members a strong ethos of responsibility for the society with global citizenship spirit.[34]

Relationship with Noriega[edit]

From the mid-70's, President Ikeda fostered a close relationship with Manuel Noriega, before and during his period as military dictator of Panama. Noriega repeatedly visited the Taiseki-ji and Noriega hosted Ikeda on several visits to Panama, and after a 1981 visit, Noriega named a scenic observation point on one of the Causeway Islands at the Pacific approach to the Panama Canal "Mirador Ikeda".[35] The Soka Gakkai reciprocated by creating a "Noriega garden" (ノリエガ庭園) at one of its locales in Fujinomiya, Shizuoka.[36]:99–101 Both leaders praised each other's virtues in public statements.[37]:160

Friends of Noriega have alleged that Ikeda provided him with several million dollars' worth of assistance during the worst part of Noriega's crisis in 1987 and 1988, though Soka Gakkai spokesmen deny this.[38] An unnamed French investigation referenced to in Steven Kaplan's two-volume study Farewell, Revolution supposedly revealed that Ikeda visited Noriega shortly before his capture and abandoned a safe containing a million dollars in strange circumstances.[39]

Accomplishments[edit]

Ikeda is a prolific writer, peace activist and interpreter of Nichiren Buddhism.[citation needed] His interests include photography, art, philosophy, and music. He has signed the Earth Charter. He has traveled to more than 50 countries to hold discussions with political, cultural, and educational figures, as well as to teach, support, and encourage SGI practitioners.

Topics he has addressed include the transformative value of religion, the universal sanctity of life,[40] social responsibility, and sustainable progress and development.

As head of SGI, Ikeda has founded several institutions, such as the Sōka University, Sōka schools, the International Committee of Artists for Peace,[n 1] the Min-On Concert Association,[n 2] the Tokyo Fuji Art Museum (TFAM),[n 3] the Institute of Oriental Philosophy (IOP),[n 4] and the Toda Institute for Global Peace and Policy Research.[n 5]

In addition, he has guided Sōka Gakkai's support of, and involvement in, the New Komeito Party (Kōmeitō), a Japanese political party which, as of 2007, is part of a coalition with the Liberal Democratic Party. Ikeda has also initiated a wide range of grassroots exchange programs,[41][42][43] and delivered speeches at a number of institutions of higher learning around the world, including Harvard University, the Institut de France, Beijing University, and Moscow State University. The Gandhi, King, Ikeda exhibition showcases the peace activism of Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Luther King Jr, and Ikeda.[44] Another exhibition is Dialogue with Nature showcasing Ikeda's photographs.[45][46] He has also sponsored a documentary film about the environment, A Quiet Revolution.

Ikeda's many children's books have been animated into anime.[47] [48]

He is an honorary member of the Club of Rome.[49]

Honorary doctorates and professorships[edit]

Ikeda received his 300th degree from the University of Massachusetts Boston on November 21, 2010.[50] He has said that "The academic honors I have accepted have all been on behalf of the members of SGI around the world."[51] His pursuit to promote peace through humanism over the past 60 years has been recognised worldwide, for which he has received over 340 academic honours.[51]

Other awards[edit]

Personal life[edit]

Ikeda lives in Tokyo with his wife, Kaneko (born 1932), whom he married on May 3, 1952. He has three sons, Hiromasa (born 1953; Vice-president of Sōka Gakkai),[73] Shirohisa (1955–1984), and Takahiro (born 1958).

Books[edit]

  • Compassionate Light in Asia with Jin Yong
  • The Human Revolution (12 volumes):Human Revolution in SGI
  • The New Human Revolution (30+ Volumes, this is an ongoing series)
  • Choose Life: A Dialogue with Arnold J. Toynbee
  • Dawn After Dark with René Huyghe
  • Before It Is Too Late with Aurelio Peccei
  • Human Values in a changing world with Bryan Wilson
  • A Lifelong Quest for Peace with Linus Pauling
  • Dialogue of World Citizens with Norman Cousins
  • Choose Peace with Johan Galtung
  • Planetary Citizenship with Hazel Henderson
  • Moral Lesson of the Twentieth Century with Mikhail Gorbachev
  • A Quest for Global Peace: Rotblat and Ikeda on War, Ethics, and the Nuclear Threat with Joseph Rotblat
  • Global Civilization: A Buddhist-Islamic Dialogue With Majid Tehranian
  • Toward Creating an Age of Humanism with John Kenneth Galbraith
  • Dialogical Civilization with Tu Weiming
  • My Recollections
  • One By One
  • For the Sake of Peace
  • A Youthful Diary
  • The Living Buddha
  • Buddhism, the First Millennium
  • The Flower of Chinese Buddhism
  • The Wisdom of the Lotus Sutra (6 volumes)
  • On Peace, Life and Philosophy with Henry Kissinger
  • Human Rights on the 21st Century with Austregesilo de Athayde
  • Revolutions: to green the environment, to grow the human heart with M.S. Swaminathan
  • Unlocking the Mysteries of Birth and Death: A Buddhist View of Life
  • Life: An Enigma, a Precious Jewel
  • Humanity at the Crossroads with Karan Singh
  • The Snow Country Prince (children's book)
  • The Cherry Tree (children's book)
  • The Princess and the Moon (children's book)
  • Over the Deep Blue Sea (children's book)
  • Kanta and the Deer (children's book)
  • The Way of Youth: Buddhist Common Sense for Handling Life's Questions (with a foreword by Duncan Sheik)
  • Planetary Citizenship with Hazel Henderson
  • Songs of Peace: Rendezvous with Nature (Photographs) (Tokyo: Sōka Gakkai, 2005)
  • "A Dialogue Between East and West: Looking to a Human Revolution" with Ricardo Diez-Hochleitner
  • Ode to the Grand Spirit — A dialogue — with Chingiz Aitmatov
  • 'La fuerza de la Esperanza; Reflexiones sobre la paz y los derechos humanos en el tercer milenio' (dialogue between Argentine Nobel Peace laureate Dr. Adolfo Pérez Esquivel and Daisaku Ikeda) (Buenos Aires, Emecé, 2011)

Critical commentary[edit]

Lawrence Carter, an ordained Baptist minister and the dean of the Martin Luther King Jr. Chapel at Morehouse College in Atlanta, has worked with the SGI-USA and Daisaku Ikeda for many years. Morehouse gave an honorary doctorate to Ikeda, and Carter also initiated the annual "Gandhi, King, Ikeda: A Legacy of Building Peace" award as a way of extolling those whose actions for peace have cut across human boundaries. When a Shūkan Shinchō article criticized these aspects of the award, Carter wrote a protest to the magazine:

"Controversy" is an inevitable partner of greatness. No one who challenges the established order is free of it. Gandhi had his detractors, as did Dr. King. Dr. Ikeda is no exception. Controversy camouflages the intense resistance of entrenched authority to conceding their special status and privilege. "Insults" are the weapons of the morally weak; "slander" is the tool of the spiritually bereft. Controversy is testament to the noble work of these three individuals in their respective societies.[74]

Ikeda has often been the subject of controversy. British journalist and political commentator Polly Toynbee was invited to meet Ikeda in 1984, as Ikeda "was hoping to tighten the public connection between himself and Polly Toynbee's famous grandfather, Arnold Toynbee, the prophet of the rise of the East."[75] She described him as "a short, round man with slicked down hair, wearing a sharp Western suit"; they talked from "throne-like" chairs in "an enormous room" reached via "corridors of bowing girls dressed in white".[76] Toynbee wrote "I have met many powerful men--prime ministers, leaders of all kinds--but I have never in my life met anyone who exudes such an aura of absolute power as Mr. Ikeda."[77][78] In the article, first published in the The Guardian on May 19, 1984, she also voiced the wish that her grandfather, Arnold J. Toynbee, would not have endorsed their dialogue, Choose Life, remarking that her grandfather at the time had been "so old" and "was a frail man."[78][79]

In contrast, Toynbee himself stated in the book's preface (in the third person), "[On arranging the meetings, translations, and publications] Arnold Toynbee is very grateful to Daisaku Ikeda for having it upon his younger shoulders.".[80][n 6] He also expressed his "agree[ment] with Soka Gakkai on religion as the most important thing in human life, and on opposition to militarism and war." [81] The book has been translated and published in twenty languages.[59]

The houses of representatives in Georgia, [82] Missouri,[83] and Illinois [84][85][86] recognize the service and dedication of Daisaku Ikeda "who has dedicated his entire life to building peace and promoting human rights through education and cultural exchange with deep conviction in the shared humanity of our entire global family" [86] in which he "values education and culture as the prerequisites for the creation of true peace in which the dignity and fundamental rights of all people are respected." [83]

In 1990 Frederick Kempe reported allegations that Ikeda had provided financial assistance to Manuel Noriega in 1987 and 1988. Sōka Gakkai spokesmen denied this and also that Noriega had officially become a member of SGI.[38]

A 1995 San Francisco Chronicle article titled "Japan Fears Another Religious Sect" outlined charges in Japan of "heavy-handed fund raising and proselytizing [by Sōka Gakkai], as well as intimidating its foes and trying to grab political power".[87] It quotes Takashi Shokei, a professor at Meisei University, as describing Ikeda as "a power-hungry individual who intends to take control of the government and make Soka Gakkai the national religion"; the article describes a videotape made in 1993 of Ikeda "yelling and pounding on tables in anger and later railing against President Clinton for having refused to meet with him".[87]

A 1995 Time article criticized Daisaku Ikeda and Sōka Gakkai, claiming that "according to a member who was present" Ikeda, as "honorary president and unquestioned commander" of Sōka Gakkai, had said of Kōmeitō: "This time, not the next time, [the election] is going to be about winning or losing. We cannot hesitate. We must conquer the country with one stroke."[88]

In 1999, The New York Times published an article on the uneasy rise of the New Kōmeitō Party in Japan (funded largely by Ikeda and Sōka Gakkai).[33] In response, a letter to the editor by Alfred Balitzer (later of Soka University of America) offered a more sympathetic portrayal of Sōka Gakkai.[89]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ International Committee of Artists for Peace
  2. ^ Min-On Concert Association
  3. ^ Tokyo Fuji Art Museum.
  4. ^ Institute of Oriental Philosophy.
  5. ^ Toda Institute for Global Peace and Policy Research
  6. ^ This preface was written by Toynbee in the third person on behalf of both authors.

References[edit]

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  2. ^ "Profile: Soka Gakkai International". Civil Society Participation. NGO Branch, UN Dept of Economic and Social Affairs. Retrieved 24 September 2013. 
  3. ^ Watanabe, Teresa (15 March 1996). "Japan's Crusader or Corrupter?". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 3 December 2013. 
  4. ^ Bluck, Robert (2008). British Buddhism Teachings, Practice and Development. Routledge. pp. 98–99. ISBN 978-0415483087. 
  5. ^ Befu, edited by Harumi; Guichard-Anguis, Sylvie (2003). Globalizing Japan : ethnography of the Japanese presence in Asia, Europe, and America (1. publ. ed.). London: Routledge. pp. 104–105. ISBN 978-0415285667. 
  6. ^ Prohl, edited by Inken; Nelson, John (2012). Handbook of contemporary Japanese religions. Leiden: Brill. pp. 300–302. ISBN 978-9004234352. 
  7. ^ "Komeito: Searching for Party Reconstruction". Japan Quarterly (Asahi Shimbun-Sha) 28 (2): 155. January–March 1981. 
  8. ^ Harding, edited by John S.; Hori, Victor Sōgen; Soucy, Alexander (2010). Wild geese : Buddhism in Canada. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press. p. 93. ISBN 978-0773536678. 
  9. ^ Petersen, edited by James R. Lewis, Jesper Aagaard (2004). Controversial new religions ([Reprint.] ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 149. ISBN 978-0195156836. 
  10. ^ Métraux, Daniel A. (1994). The Soka Gakkai revolution. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America. p. 58. ISBN 978-0819197337. 
  11. ^ Jones, Ken (2003). The new social face of Buddhism : an alternative sociopolitical perspective. Boston, MA: Wisdom Publications. pp. 197–198. ISBN 978-0861713653. 
  12. ^ Ikeda, Daisaku (May 11, 1998). "My Mother". The Mirror Weekly(The Philippines). 
  13. ^ M. LaVora Perry (2010). PeaceBuilders--Daisaku Ikeda & Josei Toda, Buddhist Leaders. Fortune Child Books. ISBN 978-0977111312. 
  14. ^ a b c Timeline of Ikeda's life, daisakuikeda.org. Accessed 6 November 2013.
  15. ^ "Daisaku Ikeda". Hosshaku Kempon. 1928-01-02. Retrieved 2013-11-06. 
  16. ^ Kisala, Robert (2000). Prophets of peace: Pacifism and cultural identity in Japan's new religions. Honolulu, HI, USA: University of Hawai'i Press. ISBN 978-0824822675. 
  17. ^ a b Seager, Richard Hughes. Encountering the Dharma: Daisaku Ikeda, Soka Gakkai, and the Globalization of Buddhist Humanism. Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press, 2006.
  18. ^ a b Murata, Kiyoaki (1969). Japan's new Buddhism: an objective account of Soka Gakkai ([1st ed.]. ed.). New York: Weatherhill. pp. 96–97. ISBN 978-0834800403. 
  19. ^ Shimada, Hiromi (2008). Sōkagakkai (Kindle) (in Japanese). Tōkyō: Shinchōsha. ISBN 978-4106100727. 
  20. ^ Montgomery, Daniel B. (1991). Fire in the lotus: the dynamic Buddhism of Nichiren. London: Mandala. ISBN 978-1852740917. 
  21. ^ Ikeda, Daisaku. "Thoughts on Education for Global Citizenship" (daisakuikeda.org). Teachers College, Columbia University, June 13, 1996]
  22. ^ Tricycle Magazine Interview: http://www.daisakuikeda.org/sub/resources/interview/interview2/2008tricycle.html
  23. ^ Choy, Lee Khoon (1995). Japan, between myth and reality. Singapore [u.a.]: World Scientific. ISBN 981-02-1865-6. 
  24. ^ Lewis, James R. (2003). Legitimating new religions ([Online-Ausg.]. ed.). New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press. ISBN 978-0813533247.  "Soka Gakkai ... was not infrequently stereotyped as a brainwashing cult, particularly by anti-cult authors."
  25. ^ Fujiwara, Hirotatsu (1970). I Denounce Soka Gakkai. Tokyo: Nisshin Hodo. ISBN 9110135502. 
  26. ^ cho, Furukawa Toshiaki (2000). Karuto to shite no Sōka Gakkai = Ikeda Daisaku (Shohan. ed.). Tōkyō: Daisan Shokan. ISBN 978-4807400171. 
  27. ^ Yanatori, Mitsuyoshi (1977). Sōka Gakkai (in Japanese). Tokyo: Kokusho Kankōkai. 
  28. ^ Queen, Christopher S. and Sallie B. King, eds. (1996). Engaged Buddhism: Buddhist Liberation Movements in Asia. Albany: State University of New York Press. p. 365. ISBN 0791428443. 
  29. ^ Shimada, Hiromi: Kōmeitō vs. Sōka Gakkai ("Conflicts between Komeitō and Sōka Gakkai"). Asahi Shinsho, Tokyo: May 2007. ISBN 978-4-02-273153-1. p. 114. (Japanese)
  30. ^ Shimada, Hiromi: Kōmeitō vs. Sōka Gakkai, p. 116. (Japanese)
  31. ^ Mizoguchi, Atsushi: Ikeda Daisaku: Kenryokusha no Kōzō ("Daisaku Ikeda: The structure behind a man with power"). Tokyo: Kōdansha, 2005. ISBN 4-06-256962-0. p. 396 (Japanese)
  32. ^ Taisekiji: Nichiren Shōshū Nyūmon ("An introduction to Nichiren Shōshū"). Fujinomiya, 2002. p. 332 (chronology) and p. 240 (Japanese)
  33. ^ a b Howard W. French, "A Sect's Political Rise Creates Uneasiness in Japan", 14 November 1999. Accessed 19 November 2011.
  34. ^ Jacqueline I. Stone, "Nichiren's activist heirs: Sōka Gakkai, Risshō Kōsekai, Nipponzan Myōhōji", in Christopher Queen, et al., eds, Action Dharma: New Studies in Engaged Buddhism (London: Routledge Curzon, 2003). Scan (PDF) available here [1].
  35. ^ "Reunion with Panamanian Leader". The Sōka Gakkai News. 191-237: 9. International Bureau, Sōka Gakkai., 1985. 
  36. ^ Furukawa, Toshiaki (2000). Karuto to shite no Sōka Gakkai = Ikeda Daisaku (Shohan. ed.). Tōkyō: Daisan Shokan. ISBN 978-4807400171. 
  37. ^ Métraux, Daniel A. (1994). The Soka Gakkai revolution. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America. ISBN 978-0819197337. 
  38. ^ a b Kempe, Frederick (1990). Divorcing the Dictator: America's Bungled Affair with Noriega. I B Taurus. pp. 286–287. ISBN 9781850432593. Retrieved February 13, 2013. 
  39. ^ Kaplan, Steven Laurence (1995). Farewell, Revolution: disputed legacies: France, 1789/1989 (1. publ. ed.). Ithaca: Cornell University Press. pp. 191–192. ISBN 978-0801427183. 
  40. ^ "Stop the Killing", The World is Yours to Change, [by Daisaku Ikeda, Asahi Press, Tokyo, 2002]. Accessed April 29, 2013.
  41. ^ Ecological paradise, The Times of India
  42. ^ Survey of Youth Attitudes to Nuclear Weapons, Nuclear Power
  43. ^ UNHCR Recognises Importance of Faith for the Uprooted
  44. ^ Adam Gamble and Takesato Watanabe, A Public Betrayed: An Inside Look at Japanese Media Atrocities and Their Warnings to the West (Regnery Publishing, 2004).
  45. ^ Levi McLaughlin, Sōka Gakkai in Japan, PhD dissertation, Princeton University, 2009. This dissertation is mentioned here [2] (academia.edu).
  46. ^ Joam Evans Pim, ed., Toward a Nonkilling Paradigm, 8th World Summit of Nobel Peace Laureates.
  47. ^ Educating kids through animated films, The Hindu
  48. ^ Chinese Part 1 – Dr. Daisaku Ikeda's animation stories – Malaysia ntv7
  49. ^ list of honorary members, Club of Rome.
  50. ^ 創価学会の池田名誉会長、海外からの称号300個に
  51. ^ a b c "Daisaku Ikeda Receives Honorary Degree from UMass Boston at Special Ceremony in Japan", University of Massachusetts Boston, 23 November 2010. Accessed 2 January 2010.
  52. ^ "Honorary Degrees and Titles" (PDF), University of Macau. Accessed 1 January 2010.
  53. ^ a b c "Conferral Ceremony". Retrieved 2012-10-05. 
  54. ^ Citation, University of Hong Kong, 2005. Accessed 1 January 2010.
  55. ^ "Honorary degree awarded U.N. Peace Award winner", University of Delaware Update vol. 19, no. 18, 3 February 2000. Accessed 1 January 2010.
  56. ^ Press release, University of Sydney, 7 October 2010. Accessed 1 January 2010.
  57. ^ Press release, Chinese University of Hong Kong, 16 October 2000. Retrieved 1 January 2010.
  58. ^ "RUC and the world", Renmin University of China. Accessed 12 February 2013.
  59. ^ a b Recommendation of the Honorary Degree of Doctor of Humane Letters, Southern Illinois University, Board of Trustees, March 9, 2006
  60. ^ Untitled page, Jiaying University. Accessed 12 February 2013.
  61. ^ "Yan'an University in Shaanxi, China, Confers Lifetime Professorship", Yan'an University. Accessed 12 February 2013.
  62. ^ "Rector traveled to Japan to present the respective certificates to of honorary doctorate", Yerevan State Academy of Fine Arts and Artists, reproduced at World News, 26 March 2011.
  63. ^ "Monsieur Daisaku Ikeda, philosophe bouddhiste japonais, artisan de la paix, auteur et poète", Université Laval. Accessed 1 January 2010.
  64. ^ "the chancellor conferred an honorary doctorate of humanities to peace activist Dr Daisaku Ikeda", Universiti Malaya.
  65. ^ "OUM honors proponent of world peace and humanity", Open University Malaysia, 1 April 2010. Accessed 11 February 2011.
  66. ^ "Rector UPV nombra Doctor Honoris Causa al destacado líder pacifista japonés Daisaku Ikeda", Universia, 9 September 2010. Accessed 19 March 2012.
  67. ^ "Penganugerahan Doctor Honoris Causa untuk Prof. Dr. Daisaku Ikeda".
  68. ^ "Buckingham delegation visits Japan". Retrieved 2011-11-27. 
  69. ^ "Honorary Doctorates". UKZNDABA Graduation Special 2013. May 2013. p. 11. Retrieved 27 February 2014. 
  70. ^ "On the Ceremony of the Order of Friendship: Honorary President of the Society Soka Gakkai Daisaku Ikeda at the Russian Embassy of Japan" (in Russian). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation official website. February 29, 2008. Retrieved 28 January 2014. 
  71. ^ "Shihab Ghanem receives Tagore Peace Award". Khaleej Times. Retrieved 16 December 2013. 
  72. ^ "Jamnalal Bajaj Awards Archive". Jamnalal Bajaj Foundation. 
  73. ^ "Soka Gakkai Delegation Visits China". Soka Gakkai International. 2012-01-13. Retrieved 2013-11-06. 
  74. ^ Adam Gamble and Takesato Watanabe, A Public Betrayed: An Inside Look at Japanese Media Atrocities and Their Warnings to the West (Regnery Publishing, 2004)
  75. ^ Peter Popham, Tokyo: The City at the End of the World (Tokyo: Kodansha International, 1985; ISBN 4-7700-1226-8), p. 64.
  76. ^ Polly Toynbee, "Soka Gakkai and the Toynbee 'Endorsement'", Daily Yomiuri, May 27, 1984; quoted in Popham, Tokyo, p.64.
  77. ^ Toynbee, "Soka Gakkai and the Toynbee 'Endorsement'"; quoted in Popham, Tokyo, p.65.
  78. ^ a b "The Value of a Grandfather Figur". Toride.org. 1984-05-19. Retrieved 2013-11-07. 
  79. ^ http://www.culteducation.com/reference/gakkai/gakkai39.html
  80. ^ Choose Life: A Dialogue
  81. ^ McNeill, William. Arnold Toynbee: A Life. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989. pp272-73.
  82. ^ E103 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD, the House of Representatives, State of Georgia; January 15, 2009
  83. ^ a b House Resolution No. 0620C.01, the state of Missouri grant an exceptional honor, the House of Representatives, State of Missouri, 2004
  84. ^ Bill Status of HR0791, Illinoise General Assembly, State of Illinois, October 24, 2007
  85. ^ Bill Status of HR0797, Illinoise General Assembly, State of Illinois, December 23, 2009
  86. ^ a b CONGRESS 1ST SESSION H. RES. 844, Recognizing the service and dedication of Dr. Daisaku Ikeda and celebrating his 80th birthday, 110TH, the House of Representatives, State of Illinois, December 5, 2007
  87. ^ a b Michelle Magee, "Japan Fears Another Religious Sect", San Francisco Chronicle, 27 December 1995. Accessed 6 November 2013.
  88. ^ Edward W. Desmond, "The Power of Sōka Gakkai: Growing revelations about the complicated and sinister nexus of politics and religion" at the Wayback Machine (archived August 17, 2010), Time, 20 November 1995.
  89. ^ Balitzer, Alfred (November 19, 1999). "Japanese sect's appeal". The New York Times. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Seager, Richard: Encountering the Dharma: Daisaku Ikeda, Sōka Gakkai, and the Globalization of Buddhism. University of California Press, 2006.

External links[edit]

Preceded by
Josei Toda
President of Sōka Gakkai
1960–1979
Succeeded by
Hiroshi Hōjō