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Dharmawangsa, stylized regnal name Sri Maharaja Isyana Dharmawangsa Teguh Anantawikramottunggadewa was the last raja of the Kingdom of Medang from 990-1006 CE. He succeeded Sri Makutawangsawardhana. Dharmawangsa was the patron of the translator of the Mahabarata text into Old Javanese. Dharmawangsa was either the son or son-in-law of Sri Makutawangsawardhana, preceding King of Medang and grandson of Mpu Sindok.[1]

Dharmawangsa conquered several areas, including Bali, and established a colony in West Kalimantan. Dharmawangsa's sister, Princess Mahendradatta, married Udayana, Raja of the Warmadewa Dynasty in Bali, and had a son, Airlangga.

In the year 990, Dharmawangsa launched a naval invasion on Sriwijaya in Sumatra and unsuccessfully attempted to capture Palembang. Dharmawangsa's invasion caused the maharaja of Sriwijaya, Chulamaniwarmadewa to request protection from China. In 1006, Sriwijaya repelled the invaders and then in retaliation attacked and destroyed the Watugaluh Palace in Java. Dharmawangsa was killed, and there were further unrest and violence for several years following.[1]

Dharmawangsa's heir and nephew, Airlangga, son of Mahendradatta and Udayana, was aged only 16 at the time. However, he escaped the invaders and went on to become founder of the Kahuripan Kingdom, successor of the Medang Kingdom.