Diethanolamine

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Diethanolamine
Skeletal formula of diethanolamine
Identifiers
CAS number 111-42-2 YesY
PubChem 8113
ChemSpider 13835604 YesY
UNII AZE05TDV2V YesY
EC number 203-868-0
KEGG D02337 YesY
MeSH diethanolamine
ChEBI CHEBI:28123 YesY
ChEMBL CHEMBL119604 YesY
RTECS number KL2975000
Beilstein Reference 605315
3DMet B01050
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Properties
Molecular formula C4H11NO2
Molar mass 105.14 g mol−1
Appearance Colourless crystals
Odor Odourless
Density 1.097 g mL−1
Melting point 28.00 °C; 82.40 °F; 301.15 K
Boiling point 271.1 °C; 519.9 °F; 544.2 K
Solubility in water Miscible
log P 1.761
Vapor pressure <1 Pa (at 20 °C)
λmax 260 nm
Refractive index (nD) 1.477
Thermochemistry
Specific
heat capacity
C
137 J K−1 mol−1
Std enthalpy of
formation
ΔfHo298
−496.4–−491.2 kJ mol−1
Std enthalpy of
combustion
ΔcHo298
−26.548–−26.498 MJ kmol−1
Hazards
MSDS sciencelab.com
GHS pictograms The corrosion pictogram in the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) The exclamation-mark pictogram in the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) The health hazard pictogram in the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)
GHS signal word DANGER
GHS hazard statements H302, H315, H318, H373
GHS precautionary statements P280, P305+351+338
EU Index 603-071-00-1
EU classification Harmful Xn
R-phrases R22, R38, R41, R48/22
S-phrases (S2), S26, S36/37/39
Flash point 138 °C (280 °F; 411 K)
Explosive limits 1.6–10.6%
LD50
  • 120 mg kg−1 (intraperitoneal, rat)
  • 710 mg kg−1 (oral, rat)
  • 778 mg kg−1 (intravaneous, rat)
  • 12.2 g kg−1 (dermal, rabbit)
Related compounds
Related alkanols
Related compounds Diethylhydroxylamine
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
 YesY (verify) (what is: YesY/N?)
Infobox references

Diethanolamine, often abbreviated as DEA or DEOA, is an organic compound with the formula HN(CH2CH2OH)2. Pure diethanolamine is a white solid at room temperature, but its tendency to absorb water and to supercool[1] mean it is often encountered as a colorless, viscous liquid. Diethanolamine is polyfunctional, being a secondary amine and a diol. Like other organic amines, diethanolamine acts as a weak base. Reflecting the hydrophilic character of the alcohol groups, DEA is soluble in water. Amides prepared from DEA are often also hydrophilic.

Production[edit]

The reaction of ethylene oxide with aqueous ammonia first produces ethanolamine:

C2H4O + NH3 → H2NCH2CH2OH

which reacts with a second and third equivalent of ethylene oxide to give DEA and triethanolamine:

C2H4O + H2NCH2CH2OH → HN(CH2CH2OH)2
C2H4O + HN(CH2CH2OH)2 → N(CH2CH2OH)3

About 300M kg are produced annually in this way.[2] The ratio of the products can be controlled by changing the stoichiometry of the reactants.[3]

Uses[edit]

DEA is used as a surfactant and a corrosion inhibitor. It is used to remove hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide from natural gas.

In oil refineries, a DEA in water solution is commonly used to remove hydrogen sulfide from sour gas. It has an advantage over a similar amine ethanolamine in that a higher concentration may be used for the same corrosion potential. This allows refiners to scrub hydrogen sulfide at a lower circulating amine rate with less overall energy usage.

DEA is a chemical feedstock used in the production of morpholine.[2][3]

Morpholine from DEA.png

Amides derived from DEA and fatty acids, known as diethanolamides, are amphiphilic.

Commonly used ingredients that may contain DEA[edit]

DEA is used in the production of diethanolamides, which are common ingredients in cosmetics and shampoos added to confer a creamy texture and foaming action. Consequently, some cosmetics that include diethanolamides as ingredients may contain traces of DEA.[citation needed] Some of the most commonly used diethanolamides include:

Safety[edit]

DEA is a potential skin irritant in workers sensitized by exposure to water-based metalworking fluids.[4] One study showed that DEA inhibits in baby mice the absorption of choline, which is necessary for brain development and maintenance;[5] however, a study in humans determined that dermal treatment for 1 month with a commercially available skin lotion containing DEA resulted in DEA levels that were "far below those concentrations associated with perturbed brain development in the mouse".[6] In a mouse study of chronic exposure to inhaled DEA at high concentrations (above 150 mg/m3), DEA was found to induce body and organ weight changes, clinical and histopathological changes, indicative of mild blood, liver, kidney and testicular systemic toxicity.[7] A 2009 study found that DEA has potential acute, chronic and subchronic toxicity properties for aquatic species.[8]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Akzo-Nobel data sheet". Retrieved 2013-08-14. 
  2. ^ a b Matthias Frauenkron, Johann-Peter M elder, Günther Ruider, Roland Rossbacher, Hartmut Höke “Ethanolamines and Propanolamines” in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 2002 by Wiley-VCH, Weinheim doi:10.1002/14356007.a10_001
  3. ^ a b Klaus Weissermel, Hans-Jürgen Arpe, Charlet R. Lindley, Stephen Hawkins (2003). "Chap. 7. Oxidation Products of Ethylene". Industrial Organic Chemistry. Wiley-VCH. pp. 159–161. ISBN 3-527-30578-5. 
  4. ^ Lessmann H, Uter W, Schnuch A, Geier J (2009). "Skin sensitizing properties of the ethanolamines mono-, di-, and triethanolamine. Data analysis of a multicentre surveillance network (IVDK*) and review of the literature". Contact Dermatitis 60 (5): 243–255. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0536.2009.01506.x. PMID 19397616. 
  5. ^ Study Shows Ingredient Commonly Found In Shampoos May Inhibit Brain Development
  6. ^ Craciunescu, CN; Niculescu, MD; Guo, Z; Johnson, AR; Fischer, L; Zeisel, SH (2009). "Dose response effects of dermally applied diethanolamine on neurogenesis in fetal mouse hippocampus and potential exposure of humans.". Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology 107 (1): 220–6. doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfn227. PMC 2638646. PMID 18948303. 
  7. ^ Gamer AO, Rossbacher R, Kaufmann W, van Ravenzwaay B (2008). "The inhalation toxicity of di- and triethanolamine upon repeated exposure". Food Chem Toxicol 46 (6): 2173–83. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2008.02.020. PMID 18420328. 
  8. ^ Libralato G, Volpi Ghirardini A, Avezzù F (2009). "Seawater ecotoxicity of monoethanolamine, diethanolamine and triethanolamine". J Hazard Mater 176 (1–3): 535–9. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.11.062. PMID 20022426. 

External links[edit]