|The Rt. Hon. Sir Dighton MacNaughton Probyn|
General Sir Dighton MacNaughton Probyn with Queen Mary
|Born||21 January 1833
|Died||20 June 1924 (aged 91)
Sandringham House, Norfolk
|Buried at||Kensal Green Cemetery|
British Indian Army
|Years of service||1849–19??|
Second Anglo-Chinese War
Order of the Bath
Order of the Star of India
Royal Victorian Order
Imperial Service Order
Order of Philip (Hessen)
Order of the Red Eagle (1st Class) (Prussia)
Order of the Redeemer (2nd Class) (Greece)
Royal Order of Kalakua (1st Class) (Hawaii)
Order of the Tower and Sword (Portugal)
Order of St Anne (1st Class) (Russia)
Order of Osmanieh (2nd Class) (Turkey)
|Other work||Keeper of the Privy Purse|
General Sir Dighton MacNaughton Probyn VC, PC, GCB, GCSI, GCVO, ISO (21 January 1833 – 20 June 1924) was an English recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.
Dighton Probyn entered the light cavalry arm of the East India Company's Bengal Army as a cornet in 1849, being posted into the 6th Light Cavalry. In 1852, he was appointed adjutant of the newly raised 2nd Punjab Cavalry which formed part of the 11,000 strong Punjab Irregular Force responsible for policing the Trans-Indus Frontier.
At the time of the outbreak of the Indian Rebellion of 1857, on 10th May 1857, Dighton Probyn was at Jullundur, the station of the 6th Bengal Light Cavalry. Probyn's squadron of the 2nd Punjab Cavalry fought throughout the uprising, with Probyn being 'Menioned in Despatches' many times for his actions.
By the end of 1857 the squadron of 2nd Punjab Cavalry which Probyn commanded was frequently referred to as Probyn's Horse, as Lieutenant E.H. Verney, RN, records in 'The Shannon's Brigade in India'
"Two bodies of irregular Sikh cavalry are attached to the main army; one is distinguished by wearing red turbans, is commanded by Captain Hodson of the Indian Army, and is known as Hodson's Horse; the other wears blue turbans, is commanded by Lieutenant Probyn of the Indian Army, and is known as Probyn's Horse. Their dress consists of the whitey-brown 'kharki', each man is armed with a tulwa and brace of pistols, and one or two troops with lances. To command a regiment of these semi-barborous troopers requires no small ability, tact, and personal courage, as well as knowledge of the native character, and both Probyn and Hodson are beloved by their wild horsemen. They are generally splendidly mounted, and each horse is the private property of his rider."
During the final days of the fall of Lucknow in early 1858, the 2nd Punjab Cavalry was constantly engaged in patrolling and was frequently sent short distances in persuit of fleeing mutineers and rebels. By this time, Probyn, worn down by the rigours of continual campaigning, was invalided back to England on 18 March 1858. By now a captain, he was brevetted to major in the regular army on 24 March 1858.
Details of the actions
"Has been distinguished for gallantry and daring throughout this campaign. At the battle of Agra, when his squadron charged the rebel infantry, he was some time separated from his men, and surrounded by five or six sepoys. He defended himself from the various cuts made at him, and before his own men had joined him had cut down two of his assailants. At another time, in single combat with a sepoy, he was wounded in the wrist, by the bayonet, and his horse also was slightly wounded; but, though the sepoy fought desperately, he cut him down. The same day he singled out a standard bearer, and, in the presence of a number of the enemy, killed him and captured the standard. These are only a few of the gallant deeds of this brave young officer."
Despatch from Major-General James Hope Grant, K.C.B., dated 10th January, 1858.
Later career and royal courtier
On 4 March 1872, the Prince of Wales, later Edward VII, appointed him as one of his equerries. He was knighted as a Knight Commander of the Order of the Star of India (KCSI) on 7 March 1876, and was brevetted to lieutenant-general on 1 October 1877. He was promoted to the substantive rank of lieutenant-colonel in the Bengal Cavalry on 1 April 1881, and was transferred to the unemployed list on 1 July 1882. He was appointed a Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath, Civil Division (KCB) in the 1887 Golden Jubilee Honours. On 1 December 1888, he was promoted to the local rank of general in the British Indian Army while unemployed, and was promoted to the substantive rank of colonel in the Bengal Cavalry on 1 April 1893. He was appointed one of the first Knights Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order (GCVO) on 26 May 1896.
He was a councillor of the Oxford Military College in Cowley, Oxfordshire from 1876-1896, and was appointed a member of the Privy Council on 9 February 1901. He was promoted to a Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath, Civil Division (GCB) on 11 July 1902 and appointed a Companion of the Imperial Service Order (ISO) on 22 July 1903. He was appointed a Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath, Military Division (KCB (Mil.)) on 20 October 1909.
He was in later life an ornament of the Victorian age, being Keeper of the Privy Purse, a court sinecure position as well as Secretary to the Prince of Wales and Comptroller of the Household. This was an important position as the Prince and Princess were both profligate in spending and Sir Dighton had a hard job to keep them solvent. Testimony to his success was the fact that, when the Prince acceded at last in 1901, he was in credit at the bank. Probyn had difficulty hiding the King's extravagance; and which the minster Charles Hobhouse refused to defend in the Commons.
Probyn continued in this role throughout the King's rule and right up to his death. Sir Dighton was appointed an Extra Equerry to King Edward VII in 1902.
Probyn was totally devoted to the Princess, then Queen-Empress, building gardens for her at Windsor Castle and Sandringham House. The Queen returned the devotion, carrying round a knife with her to cut open his collar when he occasionally had seizures.
Sir Dighton had an impressive appearance in old age with a very long white beard reaching down to his navel which concealed his VC on ceremonial occasions.
The 5th King Edward's Own Probyn's Horse popularly called Probyn's Horse, a regiment of the British Indian Army, was named after him; it is now part of the Pakistan Army and officially designated as 5 Horse.
The VC earned by General Sir Dighton MacNaughton Probyn, according to the London Times, was bought at auction 24 September 2005 for £160,000. Details of the purchaser were not given.
- "THE VICTORIA CROSS, DECORATIONS AND CAMPAIGN MEDALS AWARDED TO GENERAL SIR DIGHTON PROBYN, 2ND PUNJAB CAVALRY, INDIAN ARMY, HAVE BEEN SOLD AT AUCTION BY DIX NOONAN WEBB". Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- The London Gazette: . 24 March 1858. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- The London Gazette: . 18 June 1858. Retrieved 19 September 2009.
- The London Gazette: . 4 March 1864. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- The London Gazette: . 2 April 1867. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- The London Gazette: . 11 July 1871. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- The London Gazette: . 5 March 1872. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- The London Gazette: . 7 March 1876. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- The London Gazette: . 15 February 1878. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- The London Gazette: . 19 September 1882. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- The London Gazette: . 9 August 1881. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- The London Gazette: . 21 June 1887. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- The London Gazette: . 18 December 1888. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- The London Gazette: . 27 June 1893. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- The London Gazette: . 26 May 1896. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- The London Gazette: . 27 June 1893. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- The London Gazette: . 12 February 1901. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- The London Gazette: . 11 July 1902. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- The London Gazette: . 23 June 1903. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- The London Gazette: . 19 October 1909. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- David, Edward, ed. (1977). Inside Asquith's Diaries: from the diaries of Charles Hobhouse. John Murray. p. 73. ISBN 978-0719533877.
- Kings, Queens & Courtiers, Kenneth Rose, Weidenfeld & Nicholson, 1985 ISBN 0-297-78733-0
- "Obituary - Lady Probyn" The Times (London). Friday, 19 January 1900. (36043), p. 7.
- Irish Winners of the Victoria Cross (Richard Doherty & David Truesdale, 2000)
- Monuments to Courage (David Harvey, 1999)
- The Register of the Victoria Cross (This England, 1997)
- Philip Magnus, Edward VII
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