Digital on-screen graphic
A digital on-screen graphic (originally known as digitally-originated graphic) (known in the UK and New Zealand by the acronym DOG; in the US, Canada and Australia  as a bug; is a watermark-like station logo that many television broadcasters overlay over a portion of the screen-area of their programs to identify the channel. They are thus a form of permanent visual station identification, increasing brand recognition and asserting ownership of the video signal. In some cases, the graphic also shows the name of the current program. Some television networks use an on-screen graphic to advertise upcoming programs (usually programs scheduled later the same day, but can also be for "significant" upcoming programs as much as a week in advance) — this is generally displayed after the opening, during in-program credits, and when returning from a commercial break.
The graphic identifies the source of programming even if it is time-shifted—that is, recorded to videotape, DVD, or via a digital personal video recorder such as TiVo by possibly station identification. Many of these technologies allow viewers to skip or omit traditional between-programming station identification; thus the use of a DOG enables the station or network to enforce brand-identification even when standard commercials are skipped. DOG watermarking also helps minimize off-the-air copyright infringement (for example the distribution of a current series' episodes on DVD): the watermarked content is easily differentiated from "official" DVD releases, and can help law-enforcement efforts by identifying not only the station an illegally copied broadcast was captured from, but usually the actual date of the broadcast as well. Graphics are so used to identify if the correct subscription is being used for a type of venue. For example to broadcast Sky Sports within a pub a more expensive subscription is required. So buying this subscription adds a pint glass graphic to the bottom of the screen for inspectors to see, furthermore the graphic changes at certain times which the inspector is only in knowledge of when this change will occur.
Many news broadcasters also place a clock alongside their DOG. In the United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand, DOGs may also include the show's parental guideline rating. In Australia, this is known as a Program Return Graphic (PRG). It has also become custom to place text advertising other programs on the network above the station's logo.
In many countries, some TV networks put "live" in the bottom of the DOG to advise viewers that the program is live other than repeats.
Arab world 
Arabic TV logos are in the top-right and top left, except MBC 1. MBC 1 is in the logos are changed black and white and transparent during commercial breaks.
Australia first introduced the digital on-screen graphic in 1999. Channel 7 was the first network to broadcast on all of their programs.
ORF, the Austrian public broadcasting agency, introduced digital on-screen graphics in 1992 on both television channels operated back then. Before, only the abbreviation "ORF" was shown randomly for several minutes during the programming in the top right corner of the screen, styled in a simple white sans-serif typeface. Nowadays, all Austrian television channels, both public and private, are required by law to display a digital on-screen graphic continously in order to enable channel identification. However, during commercial and continuity breaks, it is forbidden to show digital on-screen graphics, to allow a further distinction between paid commercials or station announcements and programming content.
The position on the screen varies between the top left and the top right corner: for instance, public broadcaster ORF shows the digital on-screen graphics on ORF eins (first channel) in the top left corner, on ORF 2 (second channel) in the top right corner and on ORF III (third channel) again in the top left corner. Commercial broadcaster ATV places the graphic in the top right corner on its main channel and in the top left corner on its additional channel ATV II. Most other commercial channels show their digital on-screen graphics in the top right corner of the screen.
In Canada, networks and channels display logo bugs the same way as the UK and the US, with only minor differences.
Canadian networks often request the simultaneous substitution of programs on US networks. The imported feed is either a clean feed without a bug from the US broadcaster, or a direct US feed with the US network's bug present.
When the US network's bug is present, the Canadian broadcaster will either:
- cover the logo with their own (opaque) logo - this strategy is used by CTVglobemedia's TV stations (the logo is normally grey), and NTV in Newfoundland), or
- "co-brand" the show by placing their logo in a different corner of the screen.
As of mid-March 2011, CTV and "A" no longer cover the Fox logo during American Idol, due to Bell Canada's control of CTVgm. Both CTV and "A" now place their logo at the bottom-left corner.
In the 1980s, public broadcasters started to randomly show logos during programs to prevent video piracy, following the lead of Italian broadcasters RAI and Canale 5. After the first private stations emerged in 1984, permanently showing their logo most times, the public broadcasters soon followed. Today practically all TV stations show their logo during the programs and often these are an integral part of their design using fluent motion graphic animations to make the transition between programs, previews and advertising, as well as displaying additional information such as teletext numbers or the name of the following program. Most logos are transparent during programming though some channels don't. (e.g. kabel eins uses a bright orange coloured logo.) Also the majority of the channels show their logo in either the top-left or top-right corner of the picture though there are exceptions (e.g. RTL II in the bottom-right or N24 logo in the bottom-left and date and time in the top-right).
The Irish Language channel TnaG first used their DOG during simulcast of QVC and their coverage of the Oireachtas (Irish Parliament). In 1998 TV3 launch as Ireland's first commercial operator and the first Irish channel to permanently use a DOG in the Left hand corner of the screen. In 1999 TnaG re-branded as TG4 and began showing their logo during all programmes. In 2002 RTÉ introduce their DOG however it would only appear for twenty seconds at the beginning of each show and it was there to classify the suitability of the content of the show, in 2004 the DOG became a permanent part of the on screen presentation for both RTÉ One and RTÉ Two. RTÉ's classification guide also appears for twenty seconds at the beginning of each show. RTÉ's, TG4's and Setanta Ireland's DOGs appear in the upper right hand corner of the screen, while TV3's DOGs appear in the bottom right hand corner of the screen. RTÉ and TV3 do not use their DOGs during news or current affairs programming. Channel 6 (now 3e) also displayed a DOG during its two years on the air, 3e continue to display an on screen logo. The new digital services from RTÉ also display DOGs/bugs RTÉjr, RTÉ Two HD and RTÉ One+1. DOGs/bugs are also used to tell viewers when shows are live or when they are replays. RTÉ use the word "replay" during repeats of live programming while TV3 advise viewers "Text & Comment Lines are Closed", Setanta replace the word "Ireland" with the word "live" to advise viewers that they are watching live events rather than repeats and TG4 places the Irish word "beo" (live) below the number '4' in their logo during live programming. RTÉ refer to DOGs as bugs. In Northern Ireland UTV began displaying their DOG in the late 2000s. All of the community and local channels in Ireland display a bug. All bugs also display 888 for subtitles.
Indonesian TV DOGs appeared since the 1980s, when TVRI introduced its DOGs. The second television network, RCTI, shows theirs since 1989. All logos appear in either the top-left hand or the top-right hand. MetroTV was the first to move theirs to the bottom-right hand, in 2010 (the year Metro TV changed its logo). Unilke Malaysia, Singapore, and the Philippines, most of the Indonesian TV channels never leave the logos when commercial breaks, instead, the logo became transparent. For the station identification, it will be leave the logos, but sometimes are not.
New Zealand 
New Zealand introduced the digital on-screen graphics in 2002, starting with TV3. New Zealand FTA networks would place various logos in different places. TV One currently still has the logo on the top right hand corner. TV2 usually had the logo from the top right hand corner until New Year's Day 2012. Prime And Maori Television still use the digital on-screen graphic logo from the top right corner. Other networks would have the logo on the bottom right hand corner.
GMA Network was first introduced DOGs in 1995, since the Movie and Television Review and Classification Board has implemented a television content rating system way back since November on that year. All of the stations started to display the DOGs after the commercial breaks, except Net 25 and some cable channels, that continue displaying DOGs all the time. The DOGs can be seen on the upper-right corner, aligned with the TV content rating logo but on several cable channels these are placed on the upper-left corner or bottom-right corner. Formerly, ABS-CBN removed the DOG with the rating for 3 minutes before the commercial break, however, the problem was fixed in 2000, the DOG and the rating are now removed 10 seconds before the commercial break.
Polish television introduced the logos in 1992 because TP was rebranded to TVP. At that time, TVP was the only broadcaster in Poland with two channels: TVP1 and TVP2. The DOGs of TVP are white, while the PolSat one was in full-color until 1994, local TV broadcasters show the logo in full-color. Polish television removes the logo in commercials, trailers and other non-program broadcasts, except test cards. The TVP logo is always shown in the top right side of the screen.
The Serbian national television RTS began showing logos in the early 1990s. Their logo was sometimes turned on manually during certain broadcasts but shortly afterwards remained permanently on-screen. One could notice how they were manually controlled, as the "logo-free" time during the begin of a program varied. Until around 1994–1995 their logos were opaque white and black, presumably due to being inserted into the analog CVBS signal just before being broadcast instead of an analog YUV, RGB or digital SDI signal, while in the mid-1990s they upgraded to colorized but still opaque logos. RTS's predecessor RTB (Radio Television of Belgrade) had DOGs of varying sizes, but rather than being introduced one after another they appear to have been used simultaneously at different broadcast sites. At least three different sizes and styles of their opaque black-and-white logo are known today. On the satellite channel "RTS-SAT", Latin letters were used, but after the destruction of RTS headquarters in 1999 during a NATO air strike, it could be noticed how the logo appeared to have been quickly re-drawn and was being inserted by different equipment as it varied in shape and size, presumably because of the original equipment used to insert it being destroyed. Today RTS has the same opaque color logo from 1999 on RTS-SAT and new translucent logos were introduced in the 2000s for the analog terrestrial programs. Old logos remain on most archived recordings presumably due to lack of a cleanfeed archiving policy in the past, as can be seen in the "Trezor" historical series: 
Trivia: During a football victory in 1990, the logo jumped from the left to the right corner and back many times, presumably due to a technician playing with the DOG inserter out of happiness over the victory. 
Most local and regional stations and some national commercial broadcasters (Pink from 2001-present, as of September 2012, when the national news start at 18:30, clock disappears up until the end of its morning program, B92 from 2004 to 2011, Avala from 2007 until 2011) in Serbia along with station logo also show a digital clock below the logo.
Singaporean televisions began showing the logo during television programs in 1994. The first one was Channel 5 then, Channel 12 and lastly Channel 8. The television stations show the logo in full-color, and are usually shown in the top right of the screen. Like its neighbouring country, Malaysia, Singaporean channels remove logos during commercial breaks.
Thailand introduced DOGs in 1991. Thai TV logos are in full-color, the logos are removed during commercial breaks, trade test transmissions and transitions between programs. All Thai television stations, show the logos in the top-right of the screen.
In Turkey, screen graphics, bugs, or DOGs are known as screen badges. On analogue/digital television, screen badges were introduced to One on January 1, 2000. By the end of 2000, all television channels at the time had screen badges usually located in the top right hand of the screen. Though on January 1, 2010, One got a new theme package and the screen badge was moved down to the bottom right hand of the screen. All channels' screen badges were on the bottom right of the screen by the end of 2010.
United Kingdom 
In the UK, DOGs most commonly appear in the top-left hand corner on British channels. DOGs were first used on satellite and cable television systems in their early days, when broadcasts were unmarked. Channel 5 was the first to use DOGs on an analogue terrestrial channel in 1997. The DOG was originally very bright and noticeable, and was soon toned down. Channel 5 said that the DOG was used to assist viewers in tuning to the new channel once its test transmissions had ceased. Following the rebrand to "five" in 2002 the DOG disappeared until October 2008.
The BBC has a DOG on each of its digital-only channels. In October 1998, it added DOGs to BBC One and BBC Two but following a large number of complaints they were removed just two months later. The DOGs appear in the top left-hand corner on other channels except BBC News (which is bottom left and forms part of integrated information graphics) and its international counterpart, BBC World News. Whilst BBC Four and BBC Parliament have static DOGs, the ones on BBC Three, CBBC and CBeebies alongside other channels such as Channel 5 and Nick Jr. feature moving elements. ITV uses DOGs on all its channels. The ITV network's Northern Irish franchise, UTV, provide a DOG in the top left hand corner of the screen.
The logos on channels such as ITV, Channel 5, BBC Three, ITV2, ITV3, ITV4, E4, E! Disney XD, Sky Arts 1 and 2, Sky1, Sky2, Sky Sports, History, and More4 are almost transparent, whereas others like those on Comedy Central, Eurosport, Playhouse Disney, the UKTV channels, CITV, CBBC, CBeebies, the Discovery channels, Nick Jr., Nicktoons, Boomerang and Nickelodeon are bright and noticeable. Sky Movies, Film4 and Channel 4 do not use DOGs. Some stations display their on-screen graphics permanently. The UKTV are an example that remove them during commercials and trailers, with some Sky channels removing them altogether at certain times into a programme. In addition to a fixed (sometimes animated) motif, MTV includes the programme title in the top-right hand corner. During widescreen programmes, the DOGs on ITV, BBC Three, BBC Four, ITV2, ITV3, ITV4, CITV, CBBC, CBeebies, E4, and 4Music stay in the far corner of the screen while most other channels keep theirs within the 4:3 "title safe area".
On digital systems such as Sky and Freeview, where stations have a set EPG number and a name displayed across the bottom of the screen when changing channel, DOGs have been deemed unnecessary by some users. Despite this, broadcasters persist with the practice. In response to negative feedback, the BBC has responded, "We believe it is important to ensure that viewers can quickly identify when they are watching a BBC service." It reinforced this position in both 2008 and 2009 following continual complaints to its Points of View programme, citing channel identification as the sole reason for the policy. In its website FAQs, Five's stated reason for its use of a DOG is that "the vast majority of channels carry them, most permanently and virtually every channel at some point has one during the day." However, on 21 October 2008, the BBC announced that it was removing the DOG from BBC HD for all films and most dramas, acknowledging that there was an "irritation factor". However, the DOG came back when BBC One HD launched in 2010. More recent additions are graphics which appear near the end of a programme to tell the viewer what's up next, despite this information being available at a touch of a button on digital TV. Many viewers also find this practice annoying, distracting and unnecessary.
United States 
From its inception, cable network VH1 commonly used a bug in the corner of the screen while broadcasting music videos for copyright purposes. MTV did the same, beginning in 1993. MTV first began using a bug while videos were shown on the program Beavis and Butt-head, displaying the show's logo during the videos (but not Beavis and Butt-head's commentary of them). And also Big 4 Networks (CBS, ABC, NBC, FOX) began an on-screen bug in fall 1993.
Digital on-screen graphics have been a permanent part of the broadcasting of sports events since the mid-1990s, when the NFL on Fox introduced a permanent box at the top left-hand side of the screen showing the score of the game. From that point forward, the display of digital on-screen graphics with NFL games has evolved rapidly, with the addition of virtual first-down markers for football games and numerous other miscellaneous graphics.
The use of bugs to announce upcoming programs is particularly prevalent among advertising-driven cable TV networks, such as TNT, Disney Channel, Syfy, AMC, etc. These usually appear when a program resumes after a commercial break, to inform the viewer of the next scheduled program, a new episode of a program later the same day, or a "significant" broadcast in the near future (e.g. the premiere of a featured movie, or the season premiere of a popular series).
Vietnamese TV shows their logos since 2000.
Another graphic on television usually connected with sports (particularly in North America, though not in Europe) is the sponsor tag. It shows the logos of certain sponsors, accompanied by some background relevant to the game, the network logo, announcement and music of some kind.
Use in ham radio 
In most countries, hams are required to periodically identify their amateur-TV transmission. They frequently overlay their callsign on the signal instead of placing a card in the background. Most hams use for this purpose homebuilt devices or old consumer character generators. Only rarely one can see real graphics, as the callsign is usually written in the "OSD font".
Live DOGs by hobbyists 
One of the easiest and most sought-after devices used to generate DOGs by hobbyists is the 1980s vintage Sony XVT-500 video superimposer. This device can luma-key a signal, capture a still frame into memory and then overlay the keyed graphic in one of eight colors onto any CVBS signal. Another method commonly used by hobbyists and even low-budgeted TV stations in former times was Amiga computers with genlock interfaces.
See also 
- Broadcast designer
- Screen burn-in, a side effect in some cases of digital on-screen graphics
- On-screen display
- Television news screen layout
- DOG Watch!: Hello BBC Three (Goodbye Choice)
- BBC Complaints: Digital on-screen graphics
- BBC Points of View, 11 May 2008
- BBC Points of View, 22 November 2009
- five.tv: About Five
- Digital Spy: BBC tones down HD channel logo
- The Guardian: Charlie Brooker's screen burn
- Telegraph.co.uk: How low will TV companies stoop to stop us reaching for the remote?
- BBC: Doctor Who fans angered by trailer for Over the Rainbow
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Digital on-screen graphics|
- DOG Watch! - 625.uk.com - Website documenting and questioning the use of DOGs on British television