|Dukan (Dokan) Dam|
|Location||As Sulaymaniyah Governorate, Iraq|
|Operator(s)||Ministry of Water Resources, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers|
|Dam and spillways|
|Type of dam||Cylindrical arch|
|Height||116.5 m (382 ft)|
|Length||360 m (1,180 ft)|
|Elevation at crest||516 m (1,693 ft)|
|Width (crest)||6.2 m (20 ft)|
|Width (base)||34.3 m (113 ft)|
|Dam volume||370,000 m3 (480,000 cu yd)|
|Spillway type||Service: Tunnel
|Spillway capacity||Service: 2,450 m3/s (86,521 cu ft/s)
Emergency: 1,860 m3/s (65,685 cu ft/s)
|Total capacity||6,970,000,000 m3 (5,650,671 acre·ft)|
|Active capacity||6,100,000,000 m3 (4,945,350 acre·ft)|
|Inactive capacity||790,000,000 m3 (640,463 acre·ft)|
|Catchment area||11,690 km2 (4,514 sq mi)|
|Surface area||270 km2 (104 sq mi)|
|Normal elevation||511 m (1,677 ft)|
|Hydraulic head||95 m (312 ft) (rated)|
|Turbines||5 x 80 MW Francis-type|
|Installed capacity||400 MW|
The Dukan Dam is a multi-purpose concrete arch dam in As Sulaymaniyah Governorate, Iraq. It impounds the Little Zab, thereby creating Lake Dukan. The Dukan Dam was built between 1954 and 1959 whereas its power station became fully operational in 1979. The dam is 360 metres (1,180 ft) long and 116.5 metres (382 ft) high and its hydroelectric power station has a maximum capacity of 400 MW.
The Dukan Dam was built between 1954 and 1959 as a multi-purpose dam to provide water storage, irrigation and hydroelectricity. The design for the dam was carried out by the British engineering company Binnie & Partners (with Partner and third generation Binnie engineer Geoffrey Binnie the key engineer). Prior to the flooding of Lake Dukan, the area has been subjected to archaeological research to investigate as many archaeological sites as possible. An archaeological survey in the Ranya Plain documented some 40 archaeological sites with evidence for occupation ranging from the sixth millennium BCE up to the present. Five of these sites were then excavated: Tell Bazmusian, ed-Dem, Kamarian, Qarashina and Tell Shemshara. The excavations at Tell Bazmusian revealed a temple dating to the second millennium BCE. At Tell Shemshara, an early-sixth millennium BCE village was excavated, as well as an early-second millennium BCE palace with a small archive of clay tablets. The inhabitants of some 50 villages in the flooded area, around 1,000–1,200 families, were resettled to the west of the lake. The power station was designed in 1973 by the Russian company Hydroproject and became operational in 1979. Due to lack of maintenance and repairs, the power station has underperformed and is now, after 30 years of service, due for replacement.
Characteristics of the dam
The Dukan Dam is a multi-purpose concrete arch dam abutted by gravity monoliths. It is 360 metres (1,180 ft) long and 116.5 metres (382 ft) high. At its base it is 32.5 metres (107 ft) wide, tapering off to 6.2 metres (20 ft) at the top. The combined maximum discharge of the dam is 4,300 cubic metres (150,000 cu ft) per second. This is divided over a spillway tunnel with three radial gates having a combined maximum discharge of 2,440 cubic metres (86,000 cu ft) per second, and an emergency bellmouth gloryhole spillway with a capacity of 1,860 cubic metres (66,000 cu ft) per second. Two irrigation outlets with a combined discharge of 220 cubic metres (7,800 cu ft) per second have not been operated over the last ten years. The powerhouse of five Francis units at 80 MW each releases between 110 and 550 cubic metres (3,900 and 19,400 cu ft) per second. Lake Dukan, the reservoir created by the Dukan Dam, has a surface area of 270 square kilometres (100 sq mi). Its anticipated capacity is 6.8 cubic kilometres (1.6 cu mi) with a maximum of 8.3 cubic kilometres (2.0 cu mi).
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- "Iraqi Dam Assessments" (PDF). Iraq: United States Army, Corps of Engineers. 6 June 2003. Retrieved 27 February 2012.
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- Jwaideh, Albertine (1996). "Dukan Dam". In Simon, Reeva S.; Mattar, Philip; Bulliet, Richard W. Encyclopedia of the modern Middle East. New York: Macmillan Reference. pp. 587–588. ISBN 0-02-896011-4.
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- Iraqi Ministries of Environment, Water Resources and Municipalities and Public Works (2006). "Annex III: Main water control structures (dams and water diversions) and reservoirs". New Eden Master Plan for integrated water resources management in the marshlands areas. New Eden Group.
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