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Dwivedi or Dubay or Dubey or Dube or Dobé is a Hindu surname. Dwivedis belong to the Brahmin caste, and belong to the Pancha Gauda classification of Brahmins (i.e. north India brahmins). Dwivedis can belong to any of the six gauds: Bharadwaj, Saraswat, Kanyakubja, Maithil, Gauda, and Utkala Brahmins.
A commonly accepted etymology is that Dwivedi means a person who has the knowledge of two Vedas. Dwi meaning "two" and vedi referring to the Hindu scripture Vedas. Similarly, the names Trivedi (tri meaning three) and Chaturvedi (chatur meaning four) offer a parallel. Also, the surname Samvedi exists (sam meaning one or singular), where the person is said to have the knowledge of one Veda.[clarification needed]
Dwivedi's (or Duvedi's or Dubey's) are mostly found in, or originate from the northern Indian states of Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Rajasthan, Kashmir, Himachal pradesh and Punjab. People of the surname Dwivedi can be found in Gorakhpur, Allahabad, Pratapgarh, Azamgarh, Lucknow, Kanpur, Fatehpur, Varanasi, Mirzapur, Faizabad, Mathura, Agra of Uttar Pradesh; Bhopal, Jabalpur, Satna, Rewa of Madhya Pradesh; and Darbhanga, Samastipur of Bihar. In Hoshiarpur and Nangal of Punjab there are some villages (e.g. Johal, Tanda Urmar, Budhi Pind, and Maida Majra, Baas Village, Dubeta Colony & Nangal Township in Nangal) where brahmins are predominantly of surname Dwivedi or Duvedi.
Notable individuals with the surname Dwivedi can now be found throughout India, many holding key political, business and arts positions in New Delhi and Mumbai.
Outside of India, many Dwivedis can be found in Canada, New Zealand and the United States. 
Individuals with the surname Dube can also found in the Indian diaspora in Fiji, Guyana (as Doobay), Trinidad and Tobago and Suriname.
Notable people with the surname Dwivedi
- Sant Tulsidas Dwivedi - Creator of Ramcharitmanas
- Sudhakar Dwivedi - Mathematician
- Mahavir Prasad Dwivedi - Indian writer
- Nikhil Dwivedi - Bollywood actor
- Chandraprakash Dwivedi - Indian film director and script writer
- Hazari Prasad Dwivedi - Hindi novelist
- Sharada Dwivedi - Mumbai-based historian and researcher
- Bal Govind Dwivedi - Hindi poet
- Janardan Dwivedi - Politician from Indian National Congress party
- O.P. Dwivedi - Professor emiritus, Order of Canada, Royal Society of Canada
- Ragini Dwivedi - Bollywood actress and model
- Twinkle Dwivedi - A girl from Lucknow, U.P., gained worldwide attention for bleeding eyes
- Kapil Deva Dvivedi - Sanskrit Scholar Padma Shri
- Rewa Prasad Dwivedi - Sanskrit scholar and poet
- Ram Chandra Dwivedi - Poet and songwriter
- Satyendra Dubey- Project Director for NHAI, murdered for fighting against corruption
- "Dwivedi". Websters online dictionary. Websters online dictionary.org. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
- George Augustus Frederick Fitzclarence (1st Earl of Munster) (1832). The Literary Gazette: A Weekly Journal of Literature, Science, and the Fine Arts. H. Colburn. pp. 450–. Retrieved 17 April 2012.
- "Kanyakubja Vanshawali" written by Pandit Manni Lal Misra, Chowk, Kanpur. Publisher: Sri Krishna Pustakalaya, Chowk Kanpur, Year 1966
- M. A. Sherring. Hindu Tribes and Castes. As Reproduced in Benaras, Asian Educational Services, New Delhi, First edition 1872, new edition 2008.
- A History of Brahmin Clans(Brāhmaṇa Vaṃshõ kā Itihāsa)(Hindi). Dorilāl Śarmā. Published by Rāśtriya Brāhamana Mahāsabhā, Vimal Building, Jamirābād, Mitranagar, Masūdābād,Aligarh-1, 2nd ed-1998.
- The Tribes and Castes of Central Provinces of India, by R. V. Russel,I.C.S,(assisted by R. B. Hira Lal),4 Vols,Macmillan and Co; New Ed edition (2 Aug 1995) : Asian Educational Services,India; Language English, ISBN 81-206-0833-X ISBN 978-8120608337
- Hindu Castes and Sects Jogendranath Bhattacharya; First Editions :Calcutta,1896); New Ed:New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publications, 1995.
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