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Dysteleology is the philosophical view that existence has no telos or final cause from purposeful design. The term "dysteleology" is a modern word invented and popularized by Ernst Haeckel. Dysteleology is an aggressive, yet optimistic, form of science-oriented atheism originally perhaps associated with Haeckel and his followers, but now perhaps more associated with the type of atheism of Richard Dawkins, Sam Harris, or Christopher Hitchens. Unlike traditional philosophical and religious perspectives, modern philosophical naturalism sees existence as having no inherent goal. Philosophical schools that have rejected dysteleology include German idealism (including the philosophies of Hegel and Schelling), Integral theory, and some adherents to the Anthropic principle.