He was born in Warsaw, Congress Poland, son of Edward Bogumił Strasburger (1803–1874). In 1870, he married Aleksandra Julia Wertheim (1847–1902), and had two children: Anna (b. 1870) and Julius (1871–1934).
Strasburger studied biological sciences in Paris, Bonn and Jena, receiving a PhD in 1866 after working with Nathanael Pringsheim. In 1868 he taught at the University of Warsaw. In 1869 he was appointed professor of botany at the University of Jena. Since 1881 he was head of the Botanisches Institut at the University of Bonn.
Strasburger was a founder of the famous Lehrbuch der Botanik für Hochschulen (Textbook of Botany), which first appeared in 1894. He was the first to provide an accurate description of the embryonic sac in gymnosperms (such as conifers) and angiosperms (flowering plants), along with demonstrating double-fertilization in angiosperms. He came up with one of the modern laws of plant cytology: "New cell nuclei can only arise from the division of other nuclei." and originated the terms cytoplasm and nucleoplasm.
Together with Walther Flemming, and Edouard van Beneden he elucidated chromosome distribution during cell division. His work on the upward movement of tree sap proved that the process was physical and not physiological.[clarification needed]
Strasburger was married to Alexandra Julie ("Alexandrine") Wertheim (1847-1902, daughter of the banker Julius Wertheim 1817-1901 from Warsaw); they had two children. His son was the internist Julius Strasburger, a grandson the ancient historian Hermann Strasburger.
- "On Cell Formation and Cell Division", 1876 – a book in which he set forth the basic principles of mitosis
- 1894 textbook Textbook of Botany (written with colleagues)
- "Lehrbuch der Botanik für Hochschulen", 4th ed., 1900 Digital edition/ 5th ed., 1902 Digital edition / 8th ed., 1906 Digital edition by the University and State Library Düsseldorf
- "Das kleine botanische Practicum für Anfänger : Anleitung zum Selbststudium der mikroskopischen Botanik und Einführung in die mikroskopische Technik", 4th ed., 1902 Digital edition by the University and State Library Düsseldorf
- Iłowiecki, Maciej (1981). Dzieje nauki polskiej. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Interpress. p. 188. ISBN 83-223-1876-6.
- Klaus Oskar Leyde: Strasburger. In: Deutsches Geschlechterbuch Band 207 (56. Allgemeiner Band), C. A. Starke Verlag, Limburg 1998, S. 227–242.
- "Author Query for 'Strasb.'". International Plant Names Index.
- "Strasburger, Eduard Adolf" Encyclopædia Britannica (1979 ed)
- "Science is in a Constant Flow": Live and Work of Eduard Strasburger (1844–1912)
- Family Tree maintained by great-great-grandniece Elonka Dunin
- Deutsches Geschlechterbuch Band 207. C. A. Starke Verlag, Limburg an der Lahn. 1998. p. 527 pages.
- Strasburger, Eduard; Fritz Noll, Hobart Charles Porter, Heinrich Schenck, Andreas Franz Wilhelm Schimper (1898). Translated by Hobart Charles Porter, ed. A Text-book of Botany. Macmillan Publishers. p. 632 pages.
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