University of Jena
|Friedrich Schiller University Jena|
|Latin: Universitas Litterarum Jenensis|
|2,161 non-medical, 4,136 medical|
The university was established in 1558 and is counted among the ten oldest universities in Germany. It is affiliated with 6 Nobel Prize winners, most recently in 2000 when Jena graduate Herbert Kroemer won the Nobel Prize for physics. It was renamed after the writer Friedrich Schiller who was teaching as professor of history when Jena attracted some of the most influential minds at the turn of the 19th century. With Karl Leonhard Reinhold, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, G. W. F. Hegel, F. W. J. Schelling and Friedrich von Schlegel on its teaching staff, the university has been at the centre of the emergence of German idealism and early Romanticism.
The university is organised into the following ten schools:
- economics and business administration
- social and behavioural sciences
- mathematics and computer science
- physics and astronomy
- chemical and earth sciences
- biology and pharmacy
Elector John Frederick of Saxony first thought of a plan to establish a university at Jena upon Saale in 1547 while he was being held captive by emperor Charles V. The plan was put into motion by his three sons and, after having obtained a charter from the Emperor Ferdinand I, the university was established on 2 February 1558. The university, jointly maintained by the Saxon Duchies who derived from partitioning of John Frederick's duchy, was thus named Ducal Pan-Saxon University (German: Herzoglich Sächsische Gesammt-Universität) or Salana (after the river Saale).
Prior to the 20th century, University enrollment peaked in the 18th century. The university's reputation peaked under the auspices of Duke Charles Augustus, Goethe's patron (1787–1806), when Gottlieb Fichte, G. W. F. Hegel, Friedrich Schelling, Friedrich von Schlegel and Friedrich Schiller were on its teaching staff.
Founded as a home for the new religious opinions of the sixteenth century, it has since been one of the most politically radical universities in Germany. Jena was noted among other German universities at the time for allowing students to duel and to have a passion for Freiheit, which were popularly regarded as the necessary characteristics of German student life. The University of Jena has preserved a historical detention room or Karzer with famous caricatures by Swiss painter Martin Disteli.
In the latter 19th century, the department of zoology taught evolutionary theory, with Carl Gegenbaur, Ernst Haeckel and others publishing detailed theories at the time of Darwin's "Origin of Species" (1858). The later fame of Ernst Haeckel eclipsed Darwin in some European countries, as the term "Haeckelism" was more common than Darwinism.
In 1905, Jena had 1,100 students enrolled and its teaching staff (including Privatdozenten) numbered 112. Amongst its numerous auxiliaries then were the library, with 200,000 volumes; the observatory; the meteorological institute; the botanical garden; the seminaries of theology, philology, and education; and the well-equipped clinical, anatomical, and physical institutes.
After the end of the Saxon duchies in 1918, and their merger with further principalities into the Free State of Thuringia in 1920, the university was renamed as the Thuringian State University (Thüringische Landesuniversität) in 1921. In 1934 the university was renamed again, receiving its present name of Friedrich Schiller University. During the 20th century, the cooperation between Zeiss corporation and the university brought new prosperity and attention to Jena, resulting in a dramatic increase in funding and enrollment.
Karl Astel was the Rector 1939-1945.
Research at Friedrich Schiller University traditionally focusses on both humanities and sciences. In addition to the faculties the following "Collaborative Research Centres" (German "Sonderforschungsbereich", short: "SFB") operate at the university:
- SFB 630 „Erkennung, Gewinnung und funktionale Analyse von Wirkstoffen gegen Infektionskrankheiten“
- SFB/TR 18 „Relativistische Laser-Plasma-Dynamik“
- SFB 604 „Multifunktionelle Signalproteine“
- SFB 580 „Gesellschaftliche Entwicklung nach dem Systemumbruch. Diskontinuität, Tradition und Strukturenbildung“
- SFB 482 „Ereignis Weimar-Jena. Kultur um 1800“
- SFB 436 „Metallvermittelte Reaktionen nach dem Vorbild der Natur“
In 2006 the research center „Jena Center - History of the 20th century“ was founded. In 2007 the graduate school 214 „Jena School for Microbial Communication“ was established within the German Universities Excellence Initiative. In 2008 the "Center for Molecular Biomedicine" (CMB) and the interdisciplinary research center "Laboratory of the Enlightenment" were developed as the university's youngest research institutions.
Friedrich Schiller University is the only German University with a chair for gravitational theory.
- Eva Ahnert-Rohlfs (doctorate astronomy 1951)
- Johann Bachstrom, writer, scientist, physician and Lutheran theologian
- Ernst Gottfried Baldinger, distinguished German physician
- Gottfried Benn
- Hans Berger
- Alfred Brehm
- Rudolf Carnap
- Nathan Cobb
- Heinrich Cotta, pioneer of scientific forestry
- Georg Friedrich Creuzer
- Claus Dierksmeier German philosopher
- Rudolf Christoph Eucken, Nobel Prize–winning writer
- Gottlob Frege
- Roland Freisler
- Johann Matthias Gesner
- Nelson Glueck
- Peter Griess
- Fritz Haber, Nobel Prize–winning chemist
- Friedrich von Hagedorn
- Arvid Harnack
- Gerhart Hauptmann Nobel Prize–winning writer
- Cuno Hoffmeister
- Georg Klaus
- Ján Kollár
- Karl Korsch (graduated from the University of Jena's law school summa cum laude superato, 1911)
- István Kováts
- Karl Christian Friedrich Krause
- Herbert Kroemer, Nobel Prize–winning physicist
- Gottfried Leibniz
- August Leskien
- Robert Ley
- Francis Lieber emigrant to USA, author of "Lieber Code"
- Lucas Maius
- Karl Marx (doctorate "in absentia", 1841)
- Ernest Nash
- Ernst Ottwalt
- Axel Oxenstierna
- Henri Pittier
- Samuel von Pufendorf
- Solomon Marcus Schiller-Szinessy - doctorate (philosophy) (mathematics)
- Erwin Schrödinger, Nobel Prize–winning physicist
- Arthur Schopenhauer (doctorate "in absentia", 1813)
- Otto Schott - inventor of borosilicate glass
- Hugo Schuchardt - linguist
- David Spence (rubber chemistry) - early pioneer in rubber chemistry
- Johann Gustav Stickel - orientalist
- Michael Stifel
- Kurt Tucholsky
- Christa Wolf
- Christian Wolff
- Carl Zeiss
- Richard Zsigmondy, Nobel Prize–winning chemist
Museums and collections at the University
- Academic Coin Cabinet
- Alphons Stübel Collection of Early Middle Eastern Photographs (1850–1890)
- Botanischer Garten Jena, the second oldest botanical garden in Germany
- Hilprecht-Collection of Ancient Oriental Art
- Mineralogical Collection
- Oriental Coin Cabinet
- Phyletical Museum
- Anatomic Collection
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
- Mayhew, Henry (1864): German Life and Manners as Seen in Saxony at the Present Day: With an Account of Village Life - Town Life - Fashionable Life - Domestic Life - Married Life - School and University Life, &c., of Germany at the Present Time: Illustrated with Songs and Pictures of the Student Customs at the University of Jena. In Two Volumes. London [Vol. II, Section VII, Chapter VI-XI: Student Life at Jena].
- University of Jena
- University of Jena, statistics (German)
- Coimbra Group (a network of leading European universities)