Education in Tonga is compulsory for children through the end of high school. In 1995, the gross primary enrollment rate was 122.2 percent, and the net primary enrollment rate was 95.3 percent. Primary school attendance rates were unavailable for Tonga as of 2001. While enrollment rates indicate a level of commitment to education, they do not always reflect children’s participation in school. 98% of students in Tonga attend schools while the other 2% are either living in remote areas without certain schools, such as in the Niua group, or they do not have enough funds to pay for their enrollment. There are about twenty institutions for higher education (including universities), 22 high schools, and around 95 primary schools including pre-schools in different villages around Tonga. Tonga is also known as the country with the most PhDs per capita.