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|Elf Owl (Micrathene whitneyi) 29APR12 Madera Canyon AZ|
The Elf Owl (Micrathene whitneyi) is a member of the owl family Strigidae, that breeds in the southwestern United States and Mexico. It is the world's lightest owl, although the Long-whiskered Owlet and the Tamaulipas Pygmy Owl are of a similarly diminutive length. The mean body weight of this species is 40 grams (1.4 oz). These tiny owls are 12.5 to 14.5 centimetres (4.9 to 5.7 in) long and have a wingspan of about 27 cm (10.6 in). Their primary projection extends nearly past their tail. They have fairly long legs and often appear bow-legged. They can often be heard calling to one another just after dusk or at sunset. Their call is a high-pitched whinny or chuckle. The male and female dart around trees and call back and forth.
Elf Owls usually choose abandoned, north-facing woodpecker cavities in Saguaro cacti, sycamores, cottonwoods, and other hardwood trees, to raise their young. The female usually lays three round white eggs. The eggs are incubated for about 3 weeks before the chicks hatch. The young owlets fledge at about 10 weeks. Usually, chicks are born in mid-June or early July. By the end of July, they are almost always fledged and ready to set out on their own.
They are often found in chaparral, and are easily found during their breeding season. They live in cacti much like some birds, using the shade and climate the tree provides.
Elf Owls usually are not aggressive and feign death in any dangerous situation, especially when a threatening animal comes inside their Saguaro cactus.
The Elf Owl migrates to Arizona and New Mexico in the spring and summer. In the winter, it is found in central and southern Mexico. Migrant Elf Owls return north in mid-April or early May.
Elf Owls feed mainly on insects and therefore occupy habitats with a ready supply of these. Agaves and ocotillos are ideal places for foraging as moths and other insects may sleep in their flowers. They are often seen chasing after flying insects, with a flight similar to a tyrant flycatcher's.
Elf Owls live 3 to 6 years; in captivity they may live up to 10 years.
- Micrathene whitneyi graysoni Ridgway, 1886 (extinct)
- Micrathene whitneyi idonea (Ridgway, 1914)
- Micrathene whitneyi sanfordi (Ridgway, 1914)
- Micrathene whitneyi whitneyi (J. G. Cooper, 1861)
M. w. idonea, the subspecies in southernmost Texas to central Mexico is resident, as are the isolated M. w. sanfordi of southernmost Baja California and M. w. graysoni (Socorro Elf Owl) of Socorro Island, south-west from the tip of Baja California. The Socorro Elf Owl apparently became extinct in the late 20th century, probably around 1970.
- BirdLife International (2012). "Micrathene whitneyi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
- "Elf Owl – Micrathene whitneyi". Owling.com. Retrieved 30 March 2013.
- Owls: A Guide to the Owls of the World by Claus Konig, Friedhelm Welck & Jan-Hendrik Becking. Yale University Press (1999), ISBN 978-0-300-07920-3.
- Hardy, P., Morisson, M. (2001) The Wilson Bulletin 113(1)pp:23-32
- "Elf Owl Fact Sheet". Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum. Retrieved 30 March 2013.
- "Micrathene whitneyi". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 2011-11-01.
- "National Geographic" Field Guide to the Birds of North America ISBN 0-7922-6877-6
- Handbook of the Birds of the World Vol 5, Josep del Hoyo editor, ISBN 84-87334-25-3
- "National Audubon Society" The Sibley Guide to Birds, by David Allen Sibley, ISBN 0-679-45122-6
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