He has been the recipient of numerous awards including the US Surgeon General's Exemplary Service Award for his role as senior scientist on Surgeon General's Call to Action to Promote Sexual Health and Responsible Sexual Behavior, released in 2001. He was given the Distinguished Scientific Achievement Award from the Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality and the Alfred E. Kinsey Award by the Midcontinent Region of the Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality in 2001. In April, 2007, he was awarded the Gold Medal for his lifetime contributions to the field of sexual health by the World Association for Sexual Health. In May 2009, he was awarded the Masters and Johnson Award by the Society for Sex Therapy and Research. In May 2012, he was awarded the John Money Award by the Eastern Region of the Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality.
He is the author of numerous articles and books on compulsive sexual behavior, sexual offenders, sexual orientation, gender dysphoria, chemical dependency and family intimacy, and on the psychological and pharmacological treatment of a variety of sexual dysfunctions and disorders. According to the Web of Science, Coleman's scientific articles have been cited more than 2500 times, with an h-index of 29. Some of his significant papers are:
Coleman, E. “Bisexuality: Challenging Our Understanding of Human Sexuality and Sexual Orientation.” In Shelp. E.E. (ed.). Sexuality and Medicine, Vol. 1. pp. 225–242. New York: Reidel Publishing, 1987.
Coleman, E. and Bockting, W. O. "“Heterosexual” Prior to Sex Reassignment – “Homosexual” Afterwards: A Case Study of a Female-to-Male Transsexual." Archives of Sexual Behavior 1(2): 69–82, 1988.
Coleman, E. and Bockting, W. O. "A Comment on the Concept of Transhomosexuality, or the Dissociation of the Meaning." Archives of Sexual Behavior 20(4): 419–21, 1991.
Coleman, E., Bockting, W. O. and Gooren, L. "Homosexual and Bisexual Identity in Sex-Reassigned Female to Male Transsexuals." Archives of Sexual Behavior 22(1): 37–50, 1993.