Eli Siegel (August 16, 1902 – November 8, 1978) was the poet, critic, and educator who founded Aesthetic Realism, the philosophy that sees reality as the aesthetic oneness of opposites. An idea central to this philosophy—that every person, place or thing in reality has something in common with all other things—was expressed in his award-winning poem, "Hot Afternoons Have Been in Montana." Two highly acclaimed volumes of poetry were published during his lifetime, and in 1958, he was nominated for the Pulitzer Prize for Poetry. Siegel’s philosophic works include Self and World: An Explanation of Aesthetic Realism, and Definitions, and Comment: Being a Description of the World. His teaching of Aesthetic Realism spanned almost four decades and included thousands of extemporaneous lectures on poetry, the arts and sciences, religion, economics, and national ethics, as well as lessons to individuals and general classes dealing with the aesthetic and ethical questions of everyday life. His lecture on the poetry of William Carlos Williams, which Williams attended, is published in The Williams-Siegel Documentary, and his lectures on Henry James's The Turn of the Screw were edited into a critical consideration titled James and the Children. Siegel’s philosophy, and his statement, “The world, art, and self explain each other: each is the aesthetic oneness of opposites,” has influenced artists, scientists, and educators.
Born in Dvinsk, Latvia, Siegel emigrated to the United States in 1905 with his parents, Mendel and Sarah (Einhorn) Siegel. The family settled in Baltimore, Maryland, where Siegel attended Baltimore City College and joined the speech and debate team now referred to as the Bancroft/Carrollton-Wight Literary Societies. He contributed to the senior publication, The Green Bag and graduated in 1919. In 1922, together with V.F. Calverton [George Goetz], he co-founded The Modern Quarterly, a magazine in which his earliest essays appeared, including “The Scientific Criticism” (Vol. I, No. 1, March 1923) and “The Equality of Man” (Vol. I, No. 3, December 1923).
In 1925, his "Hot Afternoons Have Been in Montana" was selected from four thousand anonymously submitted poems as the winner of The Nation's esteemed poetry prize. The magazine's editors described it as "the most passionate and interesting poem which came in—a poem recording through magnificent rhythms a profound and important and beautiful vision of the earth on which afternoons and men have always existed." The poem begins:
- Quiet and green was the grass of the field,
- The sky was whole in brightness,
- And O, a bird was flying, high, there in the sky,
- So gently, so carelessly and fairly.
"Hot Afternoons" was controversial; the author's innovative technique in this long, free-verse poem tended to polarize commentators, with much of the criticism taking the form of parody. "In Hot Afternoons," Siegel later explained, "I tried to take many things that are thought of usually as being far apart and foreign and to show, in a beautiful way, that they aren’t so separate and that they do have a great deal to do with one another." 
Siegel continued writing poetry throughout his life, but devoted the majority of his time over the next decades to developing the philosophy he later called Aesthetic Realism. After moving to New York City, he became a member of the Greenwich Village poets, famous for his dramatic readings of Hot Afternoons and other poems. His two-word poem, One Question, won recognition as the shortest poem in the English language. It appeared in the Literary Review of the New York Evening Post in 1925:
- One Question
- I —
- One Question
For several years in the 1930s, Siegel served as master of ceremonies for regular poetry readings that were well known for combining poetry and jazz. He was also a regular reviewer for Scribner's magazine and the New York Evening Post Literary Review. In 1938, Siegel began teaching poetry classes with the view that "what makes a good poem is like what can make a good life." In 1941, students in these classes asked him to give individual lessons in which they might learn about their own lives. These were the first Aesthetic Realism lessons.
In 1946, at Steinway Hall in New York City, Siegel began giving weekly lectures in which he presented the philosophy he first called Aesthetic Analysis (later, Aesthetic Realism) "a philosophic way of seeing conflict in self and making this conflict clear to a person so that a person becomes more integrated and happier." From 1941 to 1978, he gave many thousand lectures on poetry, history, economics—a wide variety of the arts and sciences. And he gave thousands of individual Aesthetic Realism lessons to men, women, and children. In these lessons the way of seeing the world based on aesthetics—which is Aesthetic Realism—was taught.
In 1951, William Carlos Williams read Siegel's "Hot Afternoons Have Been in Montana" again, and wrote to Martha Baird: "Everything we most are compelled to do is in that one poem." Siegel, he wrote, "belongs in the very first rank of our living artists." The prize poem became the title poem of Siegel's first volume, Hot Afternoons Have Been in Montana: Poems, nominated for a National Book Award in 1958. A decade later, his second volume, Hail, American Development, also met with critical acclaim. "I think it's about time Eli Siegel was moved up into the ranks of our acknowledged Leading Poets," wrote Kenneth Rexroth, in the New York Times. Walter Leuba described Siegel's poems as "alive in a burning honesty and directness" and yet, having "exquisite emotional tact." He pointed to these lines, from "Dear Birds, Tell This to Mothers":
- Find the lost lines in
- The writing that is your child, mothers. . .
At the age of 76, Siegel had an operation for a benign prostatic condition. He called it "the operation so disastrous to me." As a result, he lost the use of his feet and was unable to sleep. Five months after the surgery, with his health continuing to deteriorate, followers of his philosophy of Aesthetic Realism say that Siegel took his life. His suicide was described by Ellen Reiss in The Right of Aesthetic Realism to Be Known wrote: "Mr. Siegel, as he lived, and also in dying, was true to the philosophy he founded: his purpose was to be fair to the world".
The basis of Aesthetic Realism is the principle, "The world, art, and self explain each other: each is the aesthetic oneness of opposites". In the book, Aesthetic Realism: We Have Been There, six working artists explain this principle in life and their own craft. Reviewing them, the Library Journal tells us: "Heraclitus, Aristotle, Kant, Hegel, and even Martin Buber have posited contraries and polarities in their philosophies. Siegel, however, seems to be the first to demonstrate that 'all beauty is the making one of the permanent opposites in reality'." (1 September 1969) 
The ethics Siegel taught—"the art of enjoying justice"—includes this definition of good will: "The desire to have something else stronger and more beautiful, for this desire makes oneself stronger and more beautiful". Good will is necessary, he stated, for a person to like him– or herself: "This desire is the fundamental thing in human consciousness". (The Right of Aesthetic Realism to Be Known, issue no. 121)
The Aesthetic Realism Foundation continues to teach the philosophy that Siegel founded. The Foundation gives consultations in New York and by telephone internationally. The Aesthetic Realism Online Library publishes poems, essays, definitions, lectures, and reviews by Eli Siegel.
Among Siegel's many published works are:
- Self and World: An Explanation of Aesthetic Realism. About Self and World, Smithsonian magazine wrote: "Whether child or adult is spoken of, this book [Self and World] sees a person's concerns with dignity and compassion". (February, 1982) 
- Hot Afternoons Have Been in Montana: Poems, a collection of poems nominated for a National Book Award in 1958. Regarding the title poem, poet William Carlos Williams wrote, "I say definitely that that single poem, out of a thousand others written in the past quarter century, secures our place in the cultural world". John Henry Faulk, speaking of the poems in this book, said on CBS radio, "Eli Siegel makes a man glad he's alive".
- Hail, American Development, containing 178 poems, including 32 translations—"all with the same incomparable sensibility at work saying things nobody else could say", wrote Kenneth Rexroth in the New York Times Book Review,; adding, "[Eli Siegel's] translations of Baudelaire and his commentaries on them rank him with the most understanding of the Baudelaire critics in any language". (23 March 1969) 
- James and the Children: A Consideration of Henry James's "Turn of the Screw" and Goodbye Profit System: Update.
- Is Beauty the Making One of Opposites?, The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, Vol. XIV, No. 2, December 1955 (see Terrain Gallery.
Comments on Siegel's work
William Carlos Williams was an early supporter of Siegel's poetry and defender of his views. Williams wrote:
I can't tell you how important Siegel's work is in the light of my present understanding of the modern poem. He belongs in the very first rank of our living artists.
And Williams continued:
The other side of the picture is the extreme resentment that a fixed, sclerotic mind feels confronting this new. It shows itself by the violent opposition Siegel received from the "authorities" whom I shall not dignify by naming and after that by neglect ("Something to Say", ed. by J.E.B. Breslin, New Directions).
In Contemporary Authors Ellen Reiss, academic head of the Aesthetic Realism Foundation, stated (in a book published by Definition Press, said Foundation's publishing arm):
Eli Siegel's work, which in time became Aesthetic Realism, was the cause of some of the largest praise, the largest love in persons, and also the largest resentment...
In writing an entry about [him] for Contemporary Authors, you are somewhat in the position you would be writing an entry on the poet John Keats in 1821. That is, if you were to rely on what was said of Keats by most established critics (critics now remembered principally for their injustice to one of the greatest English writers), you would present the author of `Ode to a Nightingale' as a presumptuous `Cockney poet' whose works were `driveling idiocy.' In writing about Eli Siegel [now], you are writing about a contemporary who is great; who all his life met what William Carlos Williams described him as meeting, `the extreme resentment that a fixed, sclerotic mind feels confronting this new'; who now, after his death, is beginning, just barely beginning, to be seen with something like fairness.
I believe that Eli Siegel was a genius. He did for aesthetics what Spinoza did for ethics. 
Donald Kirkley wrote in the [Baltimore Sun|Baltimore Sun] (1944) reporting on Siegel's reaction to his 1925 national fame,
Baltimore friends close to him at the time will testify to a certain integrity and steadfastness of purpose which distinguished Mr. Siegel... He refused to exploit a flood of publicity which was enough to float any man to financial comfort..."
And William Carlos Williams also wrote,
Only today do I realize how important that poem ["Hot Afternoons Have Been in Montana"] is in the history of our development as a cultural entity." 
In 2002 the city of Baltimore placed a plaque in Druid Hill Park to commemorate the centennial of Eli Siegel's birth. That same year Representative Elijah E. Cummings read a tribute to Siegel in the United States House of Representatives.
The following are lines from Hot Afternoons Have Been in Montana, one of the poems which Selden Rodman wrote "say more (and more movingly) about here and now than any contemporary poems I have read". (17 August 1957 Saturday Review) These lines stand for what Ellen Reiss has described as Siegel's "beautiful, faithful, passionate, critical, loving attention to the world and humanity".
- The world is waiting to be known; Earth, what it has in it!
- The past is in it;
- All words, feelings, movements, words, bodies, clothes, girls,
- trees, stones, things of beauty, books, desires are in it;
- and all are to be known;
- Afternoons have to do with the whole world;
- And the beauty of mind, feeling knowingly the world!
- Fischer (2003). Complete Historical Handbook of the Pulitzer Prize System 1917-2000, Part F, Vol. 17: Documentation. Munchen, Germany: Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 3-598-30170-7.
- Kranz, Sheldon, et al., ed. (1969). Aesthetic Realism: We Have Been There: Six Artists on the Siegel Theory of Opposites. New York: Definition Press. ISBN 0910492115.
- Perey, Arnold (1976). "The Aesthetic Realism of Eli Siegel as Teaching Method in Anthropology". Anthropology & Education Quarterly (Wiley) 7 (4): 46–48. doi:10.1525/aeq.1976.7.4.05x1663y.
- Green, Edward. "Aesthetic Realism and the Need for a Philosophic Musicology". International Review of the Aesthetics and Sociology of Music (Croatian Musicological Society) 36 (2 (Dec., 2005)): 227–248.
- Monendra Grover; Dwijesh Mishra; Rajesh Kumar; Sudhir Srivastava. "Computation, Mathematics or Aesthetic Realism: Revisiting the foundations of modern biology and agriculture". International Journal of Current Research and Academic Review (New Delhi, India) 2 (8): 175–177. ISSN 2347-3215.
- Siegel, Eli (1997). The Modern Quarterly Beginnings of Aesthetic Realism 1922-1923. New York: Definition Press. ISBN 0-910492-35-2.
- Editors’ Note, The Nation Vol. 120, No. 3110, page 148 (11 February 1925): "there were 4,000 manuscripts submitted to the poetry contest."
- Mark Van Doren in Prize Poems, 1913-1929 page 19 (NY: Charles Boni, 1930): "The Nation prize…was always a spectacle to be looked forward to, and the fame which came to certain poems like Stephen Vincent Benet's "King David" and Eli Siegel's "Hot Afternoons Have Been in Montana" was an interesting index of the importance attributed by the lay public to poetry."
- Editors Oswald Garrison Villard, Lewis S. Gannett, Arthur Warner, Joseph Wood Krutch, Freda Kirchwey, and Mark Van Doren, The Nation Vol. 120, No. 3110, page 136 (11 February 1925).
- Alexander Laing in "The Nation and its Poets," page 212. The Nation, Vol. 201, No. 8 (20 September 1965): "This year they chose ‘Hot Afternoons Have Been in Montana’ because it seemed to them ‘the most passionate and interesting poem that came in.’"
- Deborah A. Straub in Contemporary Authors: "Siegel immediately became the focus of a literary controversy. His innovative technique and unorthodox approach to his material tended to polarize reviewers’ reactions to the poem; as [Michael] Kernan remarked [in the Washington Post, 8/16/78], "some critics loved it, others were outraged."
- Alexander Laing in "The Nation and its Poets," page 212. The Nation, Vol. 201, No. 8 (20 September 1965): "The vigor of The Nation's influence was demonstrated in an immediate editorial uproar across the country…Much of it assumed the form of raucous parody....This is notable because the award to Siegel helped to dramatize, for a large audience, a transition in the perception of literary values which at this midpoint of the 1920s was already evident, although still arcane. If The Nation's choice, ‘Hot Afternoons,’ is thought of as nothing more than a catalyst, the magazine's willingness to stand up for the unorthodox in poetry was symbolically important."
- Deborah A. Straub, Contemporary Authors: "Siegel composed "Hot Afternoons Have Been in Montana" with this principle in mind, taking "many things that are thought of usually as being far apart and foreign and [showing], in a beautiful way, that they aren’t so separate and that they do have a great deal to do with each other."
- Corbett & Boldt: Modern American Poetry, page 144. The Macmillan Company, 1965: "Siegel's poetry reveals a view of reality in which ‘the very self of a thing is its relation, its having-to-do-with other things.’"
- Deborah A. Straub, Contemporary Authors: "For the next twenty-five years Siegel worked…developing and studying the philosophic principles that were implicit in ‘Hot Afternoons Have Been in Montana.’"
- Baltimore Sun, April 25, 2002
- J. Dosbriora Irwin, "Village Portraits", in Greenwich Village Weekly News May 1933, Number 33, page 3: "Someone told me, a few days ago, that, to-date, Eli Siegel was the most popular man on what may be termed the left wing of the Village. This is no doubt true, but Eli Siegel, as I know him, is not a politician.... He is too utterly true and too sincere to lobby, handshake or praise. Eli Siegel has another mission in life than to be popular amongst men. That mission is to be true to himself, to his soul, to his work. Hence he gains respect, which is ever so much more important than popularity. I do not mean by this that Eli Siegel shuts himself into an Ivory Tower...no...not exactly. He has actually many friends and his friendship is just the human exchange to give and take that real friendship should be. But because he is a little finer, a little more idealistic, more sincere than most, and because work means to him a little more, one classes him amidst the rather superior beings one is privileged to meet here and there through life, and that one can, perhaps like or love, despise or envy, but always must respect. ...Also, he composes the delicate or violent, the sentimental or humorous poems he recites evenings, and prepares the highly documented literary lectures he delivers at the Sam Johnson. For Eli Siegel is a past master at entertaining, at holding the interest of an audience, also at gathering about him men and women of talent and at encouraging them in the field of their particular endeavours. Despite the genius of his profound mind, Eli Siegel is not egoistic, but sensitive to all beauty, appreciative of all artistic expressions.
- Deborah A. Straub in Contemporary Authors: "Siegel continued to be preoccupied with studying and teaching the new philosophy of life and art he had begun to develop in the 1920s and 1930s. Known first as Aesthetic Analysis and later as Aesthetic Realism, this philosophy sprang from Siegel's belief that "what makes a good poem is like what can make a good life…"
- Donald Kirkley in "Poet Outlines a Philosophy," Baltimore Sun, 2 August 1946: "More than 160 persons…attended the introductory talk. Subsequent lectures will be given weekly at Steinway Hall. Tonight's theme was "Self and World." In it, Mr. Siegel affirmed his belief that "aesthetic analysis can be of help to everybody." It is, he said, ‘a philosophic way of seeing conflict in self and making this conflict clear to a person so that a person becomes more integrated and happier.’"
- William Carlos Williams, Something to Say, ed J. E. B. Breslin pages 249, 251 (New Directions, 1985): "I can't tell you how important Siegel's work is in the light of my present understanding of the modern poem. He belongs in the very first rank of our living artists....Everything we most are compelled to do is in that one poem."
- URL: http://www.nationalbook.org/nba_winners_finalist_50_07.pdf
- Kenneth Rexroth reviewing Hail, American Development, (March 23, 1969)
- Walter Leuba in New Mexico Quarterly, Vol. XXVII, No. 3, Autumn, 1957 (University of New Mexico): "[H]e never once betrayed a false attitude. Alive in a burning honesty and directness, he had none to betray....He is at every step the poet and his directness and mastery of technical devices allow him frequent perfections. He is not mannered and he does not write for effect. Everything he writes is emotionally honest and therefore of interest...[T]he number of consummate poems and passages is extraordinary. Everywhere there is an exquisite emotional tact: "Find the lost lines in/The writing that is your child, mothers. . . ."
- "Always: Love of Reality", Ellen Reiss
- Baird, Martha and Reiss, Ellen, eds. The Williams-Siegel Documentary. Including Williams' Poetry Talked about by Eli Siegel, and William Carlos Williams Present and Talking: 1952. New York: Definition Press, 1970
- Breslin, James E. -- William Carlos Williams on Eli Siegel's poetry -- Something to Say New York: New Directions, 1985.
- Contemporary Authors 24 October 2002, Thomson / Gale.
- Leila Rosen. Through Aesthetic Realism Interest Wins, Cynicism Loses. The English Record, Journal of the New York State English Council, Vol. 49, no. 1, Fall 1998.
- New Mexico Quarterly—Walter Leuba's review "Whole in Brightness" (Autumn 1957, Vol. XXVII, No. 3).
- Williams, William Carlos. Letter to Martha Baird. Breslin, J.E.B., ed. Something to Say. New York: New Directions, 1985.
- Idaho Senior News, November 1997 by Irene Reiss, an Aesthetic Realism Foundation faculty member.
- Biographical information about Eli Siegel provided by the Aesthetic Realism Theatre Company
- Kenneth Rexroth. Review of Hail, American Development in the New York Times Book Review, 23 March 1969
- Aesthetic Realism and the Change from Homosexuality, ISBN 0-910492-34-4
- Janet Whitaker (2002). Tea at the Blue Lantern Inn, 50-51. Google Print. ISBN 0-312-29064-0 (accessed June 16, 2005). Also available in print from St. Martin's Press.
- See Martha Baird in Love's Witness: Five Centuries of Love Poetry by Women edited by Jill Hollis
- Siegel, Eli, Self and World: An Explanation of Aesthetic Realism. New York: Definition Press, 1981
- Siegel, Eli, Good Will Is Aesthetics. In The Right of Aesthetic Realism to Be Known, issue no. 121, 23 July 1975
- Siegel, Eli, Hail, American Development. Poems. New York: Definition Press, 1968
- Siegel, Eli, Hot Afternoons Have Been in Montana: Poems. New York: Definition Press, 1958
|Wikisource has original works written by or about:
- Website devoted to the memory and works of Eli Siegel.
- Siegel's lectures.
- Aesthetic Realism Foundation website
- "Aesthetic Realism Shows How Art Answers the Questions of Your Life" by Dorothy Koppelman and Carrie Wilson, published in International Conversations through Art: Proceedings of the 31st InSEA World Congress 2002, Prabha Sahasrabudhe, Editor. Center for International Art Education, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York: 2003.
- People who say "Aesthetic Realism is a Cult"
- Friends of Aesthetic Realism—Countering the Lies
- Monumental Man—The controversial legacy of poet philosopher Eli Siegel, Melissa Goldman, Jewish Times, August 22, 2003
- Response to Melissa Goldman's article in the Jewish Times, by the Aesthetic Realism Foundation Board of Directors
- "Aesthetic Realism: A New Foundation for Interdisciplinary Musicology" by Edward Green, Professor of Music
- Review of Aesthetic Realism: We Have Been There—Six Artists on the Siegel Theory of Opposites by David Bernstein et al., Popular Photography, November 1969 by Hattersley, Ralph.
- Honoring Eli Siegel Remarks in the U.S. Congress by Rep. Elijah E. Cummings.
- Aesthetic Realism Online Library