Ellesmere Canal

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The Pontcysyllte Aqueduct opened to traffic on the Ellesmere Canal in 1805.

The Ellesmere Canal was a waterway in England and Wales that was planned to carry boat traffic between the rivers Mersey and Severn. The proposal would create a link between the Port of Liverpool and the mineral industries in north east Wales and the manufacturing centres in the West Midlands. However the canal was never finished as intended. Problems arose because of the project's rising costs and the failure to generate the expected commercial traffic.

The Ellesmere Canal, which was first proposed in 1791, would have operated as a waterway between Netherpool and Shrewsbury. However the parts which were completed eventually became sections of the Chester Canal, the Montgomery Canal and the Shropshire Union Canal main line. Although several feats of engineering were overcome, most major building work ceased following the completion of the Pontcysyllte Aqueduct in 1805. The navigation's mainline eventually ended 25 kilometres (16 mi) away from Chester at Trevor Basin near Ruabon and 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) from Shrewsbury.

As part of the rebranding of Britain's industrial waterways as leisure destinations, the surviving central section is now called the Llangollen Canal; even though historically its builders had no intention of sending boat traffic to Llangollen. The branch, from which the waterway now takes its name, was primarily a water feeder from the River Dee above the village. Therefore it was not built as a broad-gauge canal hence its inherently narrow design.

History[edit]

Route planning[edit]

Camlas ellesmere.png

The formal proposal for the canal was launched at a meeting in Ellesmere in 1791 for a canal from Netherpool (now Ellesmere Port) on the River Mersey to the River Dee at Chester. It would then go in a south easterly direction via Overton (south of Wrexham) to the River Severn at Shrewsbury. Branches would then be cut to the iron making and coal mining areas at Bersham between Wrexham and Ruabon and to the copper mines at Llanymynech. By 1793 an Act of Parliament had been passed allowing the Ellesmere Canal company to build the canal.

However this route of the canal beyond Chester was not to the liking of all backers. They wanted the canal's course to follow a more westerly route from the Dee to the Severn passing directly through the Welsh mining areas. Eventually this proposal was the one that canal engineer John Duncombe followed when he eventually surveyed route. Notable civil engineer William Jessop was called into advise; he too recommended the route surveyed by Duncombe. Jessop was eventually appointed the project's engineer while Thomas Telford was appointed as General Agent. The northernmost section, a contour canal, from the Mersey to the Dee was completed in 1797. This allowed the company to generate revenue from tolls to help finance construction of the rest of the canal.

However the westerly route posed formidable engineering obstacles. Close to the Eglwyseg and Ruabon mountains, there were deep river valleys to be crossed and high ground to be tunnelled. Duncombe's survey involved a climb of 92 m (303 ft) from Chester to Wrexham, a 4212 m (4607 yard) tunnel at Ruabon, a high level crossing over the Dee at Pontcysyllte, a further tunnel and aqueduct near Chirk, and a tunnel in Shropshire near Weston Lullingfields.

A plan of the canal, published in 1795, showed the route between Netherpool in the north to Shrewsbury to the south:

River Mersey:Great Stanney; Stoke; Wervin; Caughall; Chester; Saltneyside; Leech Hall (sic Lache Hall);[1] Rough Hill; Cuckoos Nest; Wrexham; Ruabon; Plas Maddock (sic Plas Madoc); Chirk; Hordley; Dandyford; Shade Oak; Weston Lullingfield; Eyton; Walford; Hancott; Shrewsbury; River Severn.

The canal plan would also have four branches:

Originally Jessop had suggested that the cheaper solution was to use locks on both sides of Vale of Llangollen to take the canal down to a more manageable height for the second, upstream crossing of the River Dee at Froncysyllte. Rather than crossing at full height, the locks would reuse water by backpumping. But by 1795 Jessop and Telford had changed their decision. Instead they developed a proposal for a cast-iron aqueduct to maintain the original level.

Construction[edit]

Chirk Tunnel on the Ellesmere Canal was completed in 1802.

In 1796 the Llanymynech Branch was opened, linking the main line at Frankton Junction with Llanymynech. This joined the Montgomeryshire Canal at Carreghofa Locks when the Montgomeryshire opened in 1797.

In 1796, Thomas Telford constructed a feeder reservoir lake in Moss Valley, Wrexham to provide water to the length of canal between Trevor Basin and Chester. However as the plan to build this section was cancelled in 1798, the isolated feeder and a stretch of navigation between Ffrwd and a basin in Summerhill was abandoned. Remnants of the feeder channel are visible in Gwersyllt. A street in the village is still named Heol Camlas (Welsh: Canal Way).[2]

The contour section from the River Mersey to the River Dee at Chester was joined to the Chester Canal in 1797.

On the main line section, the Chirk Aqueduct was opened in 1801, and Pontcysyllte Aqueduct in 1805. However, by this time the proposed line from the Dee at Chester to Ruabon had been abandoned as uneconomic. The canal was therefore terminated at Trevor Basin, 2 miles southwest of Ruabon.

Also abandoned was the plan to reach the Severn, as the Shrewsbury Canal was already serving the town, and the poor navigational state of the Severn meant that additional traffic would not justify the cost of the building works.

As the canal would now not reach its proposed main source of water northwest of Wrexham, a feeder was constructed along the side of the Dee valley to Horseshoe Falls at Llantisilio. This narrow feeder branch was made navigable, allowing boats to reach Llangollen.

In the end the only parts of the main line of the canal to be built was the extreme northern line from the Mersey to Chester and the 29 kilometres (18 mi) central section from Trevor Basin to Weston Lullingfields. As this left the middle part isolated from the rest of the UK waterways network, the planned Whitchurch branch was re-routed. A 47 kilometres (29 mi) link was built from Frankton via Ellesmere to the Chester Canal at Hurleston Junction in sections between 1797 and 1806. Despite the circuitous route, it was considered to be the main line. The extension also included an arm to Whitchurch because the town had been by-passed by the new route. A branch was also originally intended to reach Prees in Shropshire; however the line was only constructed as far as Quina Brook, a 1.5 kilometres (0.93 mi) from the village.

The section of waterway from Frankton Junction to Weston Lullingfields, which was originally intended to be the main line to Shrewsbury, became the Weston Branch. The uncompleted part between Weston Lullingfields and the River Severn would have been 9.5 miles (15.3 km) long, with 107 feet (33 m) of lockage and a 487-yard (445 m) tunnel at Weston Lullingfileds.[3]

Working canal[edit]

Due to the constraints placed on the canal by its incomplete design, the Ellesmere Canal struggled financially throughout its operating life as an industrial waterway. In 1813, the Ellesmere Canal company merged with the Chester Canal to form the Ellesmere and Chester Canal Company. This business was then merged with the Birmingham and Liverpool Junction Canal in 1845. A year later the canal was taken over again by the formation of the Shropshire Union Railways and Canal Company.

By 1917 the Weston Branch had closed following a breach near Hordley Wharf. In 1939 traffic on the line from Hurleston to Llangollen had all but ceased. All remaining parts of the Ellesmere Canal network, other than the northern line from Ellesmere Port to Chester, was closed to navigation by Act of Parliament in 1944. However, the canal from Hurleston to Llangollen was retained as a water feeder for the Shropshire Union Canal main line and for drinking water. In 1955 an agreement with the Mid & South East Cheshire Water Board secured the canal's future.

Present day[edit]

Despite the formal closure, increasing popularity of the canal with pleasure boats led to its acceptance as an important amenity, and the rebranding as the Llangollen Canal. As the canal was never intended to go to Llangollen, this renaming is an ironic twist symbolic of the canal's convoluted development.

The Ellesmere Canal south of Frankton Junction (the Llanymynech Branch) nowadays forms part of the Montgomery Canal, together with the Montgomeryshire Canal, and the isolated northern section from Chester to Ellesmere Port considered part of the main line of the Shropshire Union Canal.

The Weston Branch is now infilled, save for a very short section, which has a Canal & River Trust amenity block.

Route[edit]

Ellesmere Port to Chester[edit]

Ellesmere to Chester
Manchester Ship Canal
Swing bridge
Ellesmere Port Basin
Whitby Locks (4)
M53 motorway
Railway
M53 motorway
A5117 road
M56 motorway
A41 road
Railway
A5480 Deva aqueduct
Start of Chester Canal
Chester
18th-century dry dock
Upper Dee Locks (2)
Tower Wharf
Northgate Locks (3)
Dee Locks (2)
River Dee

The canal starts at Ellesmere Port Dock by the Mersey. Originally goods would be transferred directly from inland waterways craft into river-going boats at the dock, which would enter and exit through tidal lock gates. However in the 1890s, with the construction of the Manchester Ship Canal, the basin became detached from the river. Traffic was controlled by a set of 2-lock staircases.

A contour canal runs between Ellesmere Port and Chester following the course of a natural river valley that encompasses Backford Brook and the Bache valley. The canal enters Chester Basin (wharf) at the junction with the Chester Canal. At this point, there is also a 2-lock branch that once led down to the River Dee and Port of Chester.

When the Ellesmere Canal reached the Chester Canal, the configuration of the staircase locks at Chester was altered. The original 5-lock staircase was replaced by a deeper 3-lock arrangement. At this point, the section is now part of the Shropshire Union Canal.

Whitby Locks, Ellesmere Port Docks.

Hurleston to Frankton Junction[edit]

Ellesmere Canal Hurleston Branch
Hurleston Jn (SU main line )
Hurleston Lock
Hurleston Lock
Hurleston Lock
Hurleston Lock
1 A51 Road Bridge
1A Hurleston Bridge
2 Bache House Bridge
3 Martin's Bridge
4 Lees Bridge
5 Platts Bridge
6 Wrexham Road (Ravensmoor) Bridge
Swanley No 2 Lock
8 Swanley Bridge
9 Butcher's Bridge
Swanley No 1 Lock
10 Stonely Green Bridge
11 Bethills Bridge
12 Hall's Lane Bridge
13 Grange (Greenfield) Bridge
Baddiley No 3 Lock
Baddiley No 2 Lock
14 Baddiley Bridge
Baddiley No 1 Lock
15 Wrenbury Heath Bridge
16 Wrenbury Heath Footbridge
17 Wrenbury Hall Bridge
18 Starkeys Bridge
19 Wrenbury Church Bridge
20 Wrenbury Bridge
21 Wrenbury Frith Bridge
22 Thomason's Bridge
23 Church Bridge
Marbury Lock
24 Steer Bridge
25 Quoisley Bridge
Quoisley Lock
Willey Moor Lock
Povey's Lock
26 Jackson's Bridge
27 Railway Bridge
28 Grindley Brook No 1 Bridge
Grindley Brook Lock
Grindley Brook Lock
Grindley Brook Lock
29 Grindley Brook No 2 Bridge
Grindley Brook Staircase Lock (3 chamber)
30 Danson's (Dawson's) Farm Bridge
30A A41 Road Bridge
31 New Mills Bridge
Whitchurch Arm
31A A41 Road Bridge
32 Wrexham Road Bridge
33 Hassell's No 1 Bridge
34 Hassell's No 2 Bridge
35 Spark's Bridge
37 Dudlestone Bridge
38 Old Man's Bridge
39 Cambrian Railway Bridge
40 Blackoe (Hughes) Bridge
41 Springhill Bridge
42 Tilstock Park Bridge
43 Platt Lane Bridge
44 Roundhorn Bridge
45 Morris Bridge
46 Roving Bridge
Whixall Moss Junction (Prees Branch)
47 Cornhill Bridge
48 Bettisfield Bridge
49 Clapping Gate (Knowles) Bridge
50 Hampton Bank Bridge
51 Lyneal Lane Bridge
52 Greaves Bridge
53 Lyneal Bridge
54 Miss Each Bridge
55 Little Mill Bridge
56 Burns Wood Bridge
57 Ellesmere Tunnel (80m)
58 Red Bridge
Ellesmere Arm (with White Bridge 59 over)
60 Stank's Bridge
61 White Mill Bridge
62 Coachman's Bridge
63 Clay Pit Bridge
64 Val Hill No 1 Bridge
65 Val Hill No 2 Bridge
66 Val Hill No 3 Bridge
67 Broom Farm Bridge
68 Pryce's Bridge
69 Peter's Bridge
Frankton Junction (Llanymynech Branch)
Junction with Llangollen Branch

This section was added to link the canal to the national network. It became the Ellesmere Branch of the Shropshire Union Canal and is now part of the Llangollen Canal.

The Llangollen Canal begins here with a flight of four locks raising the water level more than 34 feet (10.4 metres) from the Shropshire Union.
Hurleston Locks are at the eastern end of the Llangollen Canal, at the junction with the Shropshire Union Canal.
Stoneley Green Bridge near to Ravensmoor, Cheshire.
Canalside buildings close to the canal junction at Ellesmere, Shropshire.
South of Springhill Bridge.
A boat passing Bettisfield Bridge heading towards Ellesmere.
Sailing east from Lyneal Lane Bridge.
SE between Coachman's and Clay Pit bridges.

Frankton Junction to Trevor Basin[edit]

Frankton Junction to Trevor Basin
Junction with Ellesmere Branch
Frankton Junction (Llanymynech Branch)
1W Rowson's Bridge
2 Nicholas Bridge
3 Rodenhurst Bridge
4 Maestermyn House Bridge
5 Maestermyn Bridge
6 Pollet's Bridge
7 Broom's Bridge
8 Paddock No 1 Bridge
9 Paddock No 2 Bridge
11 Hindford Bridge
New Marton Bottom Lock
New Marton Top Lock
12 New Marton Bridge
13 St. Martin's Bridge
14 Sarn Bridge
15 Preeshenlle Bridge
16 Belmont Bridge
17 Moreton Bridge
18 Rhoswiel Bridge
19 Gledrid (O'Leord) Bridge
21 Monk's (Chirk Bank) Bridge
Chirk Aqueduct
Chirk Tunnel (459 yards)
Chirk Marina
25 Whitehouse Tunnel (191 yards)
26 Whitehouse Bridge
27 Irish Bridge
28 Fron Bridge
Pontcysyllte Aqueduct
Llangollen navigable feeder
19th-century dry dock
29
30
Trevor Basin

This was the principal part of the original main line of the canal. It became the Llangollen Branch of the Shropshire Union Canal and is now part of the Llangollen Canal.

Refurbished banksman's cottage and outhouses at St Martin's Moor.
Rhoswiel.
Looking towards Trevor Basin.

Trevor Basin to Horseshoe Falls[edit]

Trevor Basin to Horseshoe Falls
Ellesmere Main Line junction
31 Rhos-y-coed Bridge
32 Roving Bridge
33 White Bridge
34 Plas-yn-y-pentre Bridge
35 Millar's Bridge
36 Bryn-Ceirch Bridge
37 Plas-Isaf Bridge
38 Bryn Howel Bridge
39 Great Western Railway Bridge
40 Plas Ifan Bridge
41 Sun Trevor Bridge
42 Wenffrwd Bridge
43 Llanddyn No 1 Bridge
44 Llanddyn No 2 Bridge
45 Siambra-Wen Bridge
Llangollen Wharf
Llangollen Marina
Limit of navigation
46 Pen-y-ddol Bridge
47 Tower Bridge
48 Pentrefelin Bridge
48A Ty-Craig Bridge
49 Llantisilio Bridge
49A King's Bridge
Horseshoe Falls Gauging Station

This section of the canal was added as a navigable feeder. It is now part of the Llangollen Canal.

Canalside cottage near the Royal International Pavilion at Llangollen.
The Horseshoe Falls, which are about three miles west of Llangollen, provides the water feed for the canal.

Frankton Junction to Llanymynech[edit]

Frankton Junction to Llanymynech
Frankton Junction (Llangollen Canal)
Frankton (Top) Staircase Lock (2-chamber)
Frankton (Middle) Lock
Frankton (Bottom) Lock
Weston Arm (rest of Branch now a nature reserve/in-filled)
71 Lockgate Bridge
Graham Palmer Lock
Hawkswood Winding Hole
(New) Perry Aqueduct
73 Keeper's Bridge (dismantled)
Rednal Basin (disused - now a nature reserve)
Railway Bridge
74 Heath House Bridge
75 Corbett's Bridge
Queen's Head Winding Hole
76 Queen's Head Bridge
76A (New A5 Bridge)
Aston Top Lock
Aston Middle Lock
Aston Bottom Lock
77 Red Bridge
Park Mill Bridge Winding Hole (partially overgrown)
78 Park Mill Bridge
79 Maesbury Marsh Bridge
80 Spiggots (or Spiket's) Bridge
81 Crofts Mill Lift Bridge
Mill Arm (or Peate's Branch)
Gronwyn Wharf Winding Hole - southern limit of navigation
82 Gronwyn (or Gronwen) Bridge
82A New Lift Bridge
83 Redwith Bridge (B4396)
Southern limit of restored canal (northern section)
84 Pryce's (or Price's) Bridge
Crickheath Wharf Winding Hole
85 Crickheath Bridge
86 Schoolhouse Bridge (dropped bridge)
87 Waen Wen Bridge
88 Pant Bridge
89 (former railway bridge)
90
Northern limit of restored canal (middle section)
New Winding Hole
Llanymynech Wharf arm
Llanymynech Wharf arm
92 Llanymynech Bridge (A483) - Wales–England border
Llanymynech Winding Hole
Southern limit of restored canal (middle section)
Carreghofa Lane (barrier to navigation)
93 Walls Bridge
Carreghofa (or Wern) Aqueduct
94 Causeway Lane
Junction with the Montgomeryshire Canal

This section (the Llanymynech Branch) is now designated as part of the Montgomery Canal (combining the Llanymynech Branch of the Ellesmere Canal with the Montgomeryshire Canal). The section from Frankton Junction to the Weston Branch was originally intended to be the main line of the canal. Bridge numbering (which starts at Hurleston Junction) continues down the Llanymynech Branch, and despite now being regarded as two separate canals (the Llangollen and the Montgomery) this numbering scheme remains.

The canal at Maesbury Marsh.
This part of the towpath approaching Llanymynech has been adopted by the Offa's Dyke Path.
The bridge carries the A483 in Llanymynech.
Stretches of the canal west of Llanymynech are overgrown.

Frankton Junction to Weston Lullingfields[edit]

The Weston Branch today, now a short arm of the Montgomery Canal.

This section was originally intended to be the main line of the canal, and is now infilled. The 5.5-mile (8.9 km) long arm had wharves at Hordley, Dandyford, Pedlar's Bridge, Shade Oak and Weston Lullingfields. At Weston Lullingfields the canal company built a wharf, four lime kilns, a public house, stables, a clerk's house and weighing machine. These were opened in 1797 and closed in 1917 when the Weston branch was closed following a breach of the canal.[4]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Manors and estates in and near the City of Chester". British History Online. Retrieved 31 May 2012. 
  2. ^ "Local Timeline". Coedpoeth Minerahistory.com. Retrieved 4 July 2012. 
  3. ^ Priestly, Joseph (1831). Historical Account of the Navigable Rivers, Canals, and Railways, of Great Britain. Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown & Green. p. 244. 
  4. ^ Raven, Michael (2005). A guide to Shropshire. Michael Raven. p. 264. ISBN 0-906114-34-9. 
  • Todd, John (2003) "A canal of many parts", Waterways world, 32 (2: Feb.), p. 46–49 & (3: Mar.), p. 48–51.
  • Wilson, Edward A. (1975) The Ellesmere and Llangollen Canal : an historical background, London : Phillimore, ISBN 0-85033-109-9
  • Denton, John Horsley (1984). Montgomershire Canal and the Llanymynech Branch of the Ellesmere Canal. Lapal Publications. ISBN 0-9509238-1-8. 
  • Waterways World (2005). Canal Guide 2 – Llangollen and Montgomery Canals. Waterways World Ltd. ISBN 1-870002-89-X. 

Coordinates: 53°17′N 2°53′W / 53.283°N 2.883°W / 53.283; -2.883