European greenfinch

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European greenfinch
European Greenfinch male female.jpg
Male above, female below
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Fringillidae
Genus: Chloris
Species: C. chloris
Binomial name
Chloris chloris
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Synonyms

Carduelis chloris (but see article text)

Eggs MHNT

The European greenfinch, or just greenfinch (Chloris chloris) is a small passerine bird in the finch family Fringillidae.

This bird is widespread throughout Europe, north Africa and south west Asia. It is mainly resident, but some northernmost populations migrate further south. The greenfinch has also been introduced into both Australia and New Zealand. In Malta it is considered a prestigious song bird which has been trapped for many years. It has been domesticated and many Maltese people breed them.

Chloris is from the Greek Khloros meaning "green" or "yellowish-green".[2]

Antonio Arnaiz-Villena et al. (1998) and Antonio Arnaiz-Villena et al. (2006) studied the Eurasian Bullfinch phylogeny.[3][4][5]

Description[edit]

The greenfinch is 15 cm long with a wing span of 24.5 to 27.5 cm. It is similar in size and shape to a house sparrow,[6] but is mainly green, with yellow in the wings and tail. The female and young birds are duller and have brown tones on the back. The bill is thick and conical. The song contains a lot of trilling twitters interspersed with wheezes, and the male has a "butterfly" display flight.

Behaviour and ecology[edit]

Woodland edges, farmland hedges and gardens with relatively thick vegetation are favoured for breeding. It nests in trees or bushes, laying 3 to 6 Eggs.[7][8]

This species can form large flocks outside the breeding season, sometimes mixing with other finches and buntings. They feed largely on seeds, but also take berries.

Reproduction[edit]

Breeding season occurs in spring, starting in the second half of March, until June, with fledging young in early July. Incubation lasts about 13-14days, by female. Male feeds her at nest during this period. Chicks are covered with thick, long, greyish-white down at hatching. They are fed on insect larvae by both adults during the first days, and later, by frequent regurgitated yellowish past of seeds. They leave the nest about 13 days later but they are not able to fly. Usually, they fledge 16–18 days after hatching. This species produces two or three broods per year.[7][8]

References[edit]

  1. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Carduelis chloris". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  2. ^ Jobling, James A (1991). A Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. OUP. ISBN 0-19-854634-3. 
  3. ^ Arnaiz-Villena, Antonio; Alvarez-Tejado M.; Ruiz-del-Valle V.; García-de-la-Torre C.; Varela P; Recio M. J.; Ferre S.; Martinez-Laso J. (1998). "Phylogeny and rapid Northern and Southern Hemisphere speciation of goldfinches during the Miocene and Pliocene Epochs". Cell.Mol.Life.Sci. 54(9):1031–41. 
  4. ^ Arnaiz-Villena, A; Zamora J; Ernesto L; Ruiz-del-Valle V; Moscoso J; Serrano-Vela JI; Rivero-de-Aguilar J (2006). "Rhodopechys obsoleta (desert finch): a pale ancestor of greenfinches(Carduelis spp.) according to molecular phylogeny". Journal of Ornithology 147 (3): 448–456. doi:10.1007/s10336-005-0036-2. 
  5. ^ Zamora, J; Moscoso J; Ruiz-del-Valle V; Ernesto L; Serrano-Vela JI; Ira-Cachafeiro J; Arnaiz-Villena A (2006). "Conjoint mitochondrial phylogenetic trees for canaries Serinus spp. and goldfinches Carduelis spp. show several specific polytomies". Ardeola. 53(1): 1–17. 
  6. ^ The Birds of the Western Palearctic [Abridged]. OUP. 1997. ISBN 0-19-854099-X. 
  7. ^ a b Bensouilah, Taqiyeddine; Hafid Brahmia; Ali Zeraoula; Zihad Bouslama; Moussa Houhamdi (2014). "Breeding biology of the European Greenfinch Chloris chloris in the loquat orchards of Algeria (North Africa)". Zoology and Ecology. 24(3):199–207. 
  8. ^ a b Kosiński, Ziemowit (2001). "The Breeding Ecology of the Greenfinch Carduelis chloris in Urban Conditions (Study in Krotoszyn, W Poland)". Acta Ornithologica. 36(2):111–121. 

External links[edit]