|Born||Floyd James Dell
June 28, 1887
Barry, Illinois, United States
|Died||July 23, 1969
Bethesda, Maryland, United States
|Occupation||critic; magazine editor; novelist|
|Known for||Friday Literary Review
Berta Marie Gage
Floyd James Dell (June 28, 1887 – July 23, 1969) was an American newspaper and magazine editor, literary critic, novelist, playwright, and poet. Dell has been called "one of the most flamboyant, versatile and influential American Men of Letters of the first third of the 20th Century." As editor and critic, Dell's influence is alive in the work of many major American writers from the first half of the 20th century. A lifelong poet, he was also a best-selling author, as well as a playwright whose hit Broadway comedy, Little Accident (1928), was made into a Hollywood movie.
Dell wrote extensively on controversial social issues of the early 20th century, and played a major part in the political and social movements originating in New York City's Greenwich Village during the 1910s & 1920s. As editor of left-wing magazine The Masses Dell was twice put on trial for publishing subversive literature.
Early life & career
Floyd Dell was born in Barry, Illinois on June 28, 1887 to Anthony Dell, a Civil War veteran and unsuccessful butcher, and Kate Crone, a home maker. Dell spent his childhood in poverty, with his family moving often. He lived in Quincy, Illinois for a large portion of his childhood. Encouraged by his mother, a former school teacher, Dell became a voracious reader, spending much of his time at Quincy's local library.
In 1903 Dell moved with his family to Davenport, Iowa, which was then a liberal and cosmopolitan port city and center of trade with a thriving literary and intellectual scene. Initially attending Davenport High School, Dell did not return to school after the summer of 1904, instead becoming a reporter at a local paper. Dell also became an active socialist, and associated with other local writers to form what would be called the 'Davenport group'. While in Davenport Dell also began publishing poetry, first in local papers, then in national periodicals. By the time Dell left Davenport for Chicago in 1908 he had escaped blue-collar life to emerge as a promising young professional writer and intellectual.
In Chicago Dell became editor and book reviewer for of the Chicago Evening Post's nationally-distributed Friday Literary Review, the "leading organ of literary modernism in America at the time." Dell used his position as editor to introduce many Americans to modernist literature and promote the work of many Chicago writers, including Theodore Dreiser, Sherwood Anderson, and Carl Sandburg. Dell's further influence as a critic can be seen in the work of many major American writers from the first half of the 20th century.
Relocating to New York in 1913, Dell became a leader of the pre-war bohemian community in Greenwich Village and managing editor of Max Eastman's radical magazine The Masses. Following the passing of the Espionage Act of 1917, the government officially labeled the magazine “treasonable material” in August of that year and issued charges against its staff for “unlawfully and willfully… obstruct[ing] the recruiting and enlistment of the United States" military. The "conspirators" faced fines up to 10,000 dollars and twenty years imprisonment. After deliberating for three days, the jury was unable to come to a unanimous decision. The jurors seeking to convict the defendants blamed one juror for being unable to conform to the majority opinion, as he was also a socialist. Not only did the other eleven jurors demand the prosecutor to levy charges against the lone juror, but they attempted to drag the socialist supporter out into the street and lynch him. The Judge, given the uproar, declared a mistrial. A second trial also resulted in a deadlocked jury.
Later life & career
Following the war, Dell turned to fiction and his first novel, the bildungsroman Moon-Calf, became a best seller. This was followed by several other novels with limited success. Dell continued to publish both fiction and non-fiction until the end of his life.
Dell joined the WPA and U.S. Information Service in 1935 from which he retired following World War II.
- Dell, Floyd; Homecoming: An Autobiography, New York Farrar & Rinehart Incorporated (1933).
- Clayton, Douglas; Floyd Dell: The Life and Times of an American Rebel, (Chicago: Ivan R, Dee, 1994).
- Hart, John E; Floyd Dell, Twayne Publishers Inc (New York: 1971).
- Krupnick, Mark (1996). Floyd Dell, Sensible Rebel [Review of the book Essays From the Friday Literary Review, 1909-1913, by Floyd Dell (Edited by R. Craig Sautter)]. Chicago Tribune, February 25, 1996.
- Greasley, Philip A., Dictionary of Midwestern Literature, Indiana U. Press, 2001
- Stansell, Christine, American Moderns: Bohemian New York and the Creation of a New Century, Princeton University Press; 1 edition (December 6, 2009)
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|Quotations from Wikiquote|
|Source texts from Wikisource|
- Encyclopædia Britannica: Floyd Dell
- Spartacus Educational's Biography of Dell
- Floyd Dell: A Respectable Radical
- Floyd Dell in Iowa
- Backwards Glance: Feminism for Men in 1914
- Works by Floyd Dell at Project Gutenberg
- Floyd Dell Papers at the Newberry Library