Frank R. Stockton
|Frank R. Stockton|
Frank R. Stockton
|Born||Frank Richard Stockton
April 5, 1834
|Died||April 20, 1902
The Woodlands, Philadelphia
Frank Richard Stockton (April 5, 1834 – April 20, 1902) was an American writer and humorist, best known today for a series of innovative children's fairy tales that were widely popular during the last decades of the 19th century.
Born in Philadelphia in the year 1834, Stockton was the son of a prominent Methodist minister who discouraged him from a writing career. After he married Mary Ann Edwards Tuttle, the couple moved to Nutley, New Jersey.
For years he supported himself as a wood engraver until his father's death in 1860; in 1867, he moved back to Philadelphia to write for a newspaper founded by his brother. His first fairy tale, "Ting-a-ling," was published that year in The Riverside Magazine; his first book collection appeared in 1870.
Stockton avoided the didactic moralizing common to children's stories of the time, instead using clever humor to poke at greed, violence, abuse of power and other human foibles, describing his fantastic characters' adventures in a charming, matter-of-fact way in stories like "The Griffin and the Minor Canon" (1885) and "The Bee-Man of Orn" (1887), which were published in 1963 and 1964, respectively, in editions illustrated by Maurice Sendak. "The Griffin and the Minor Canon" won a Lewis Carroll Shelf Award in 1963.
His most famous fable is "The Lady, or the Tiger?" (1882), about a man sentenced to an unusual punishment for having a romance with a king's beloved daughter. Taken to the public arena, he is faced with two doors, behind one of which is a hungry tiger that will devour him. Behind the other is a beautiful lady-in-waiting, whom he will have to marry, if he finds her. While the crowd waits anxiously for his decision, he sees the princess among the spectators, who points him to the door on the right. The lover starts to open the door and ... the story ends abruptly there. Did the princess save her love by pointing to the door leading to the lady-in-waiting, or did she prefer to see her lover die rather than see him marry someone else? That discussion hook has made the story a staple in English classes in American schools, especially since Stockton was careful never to hint at what he thought the ending would be (according to Hiram Collins Haydn in The Thesaurus of Book Digests, ISBN 0-517-00122-5). He also wrote a sequel to the story, "The Discourager of Hesitancy".
The Bee Man and several other tales were incorporated in a book published in 1887 by Charles Scribner's Sons entitled The Queen's Museum and Other Fanciful Tales, illustrated by Frederick Richardson. Stories included The Queen's Museum, The Christmas Truants, the Griffin and the Minor Canon, Old Pipes and the Dryad, the Bee-man of Orn, The clocks of Rondaine, Christmas before Last, Prince Hassak's March, the Philopena, and the Accommodating Circumstance.
- The Lady or the Tiger? and Other Stories, David Douglas, 1884.
- The Hundreth Man, The Century Co., 1886.
- The Bee-Man of Orn and Other Fanciful Tales, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1887.
- The House of Martha, Houghton, Mifflin & Company, 1891.
- The Captain's Toll-Gate, D. Appleton & Company, 1903.
- The Lost Dryad, United Workers of Greenwich, 1912.
- The Novels and Stories, 23 Vol., Charles Scribner's Sons, 1899–1904.
- Zipes, Jack, editor, Fairy Tales of Frank Stockton. Penguin Books. 1990. ISBN 0-451-52479-9. With a short critical afterword by Jack Zipes.
- Bowen, Edwin W. "Frank R. Stockton," The Sewanee Review, Vol. 11, No. 4, Oct. 1903.
- Bowen, Edwin W. "The Fiction of Frank R. Stockton," The Sewanee Review, Vol. 28, No. 3, Jul. 1920.
- Eggleston, George Cary. "Recollections of Frank R. Stockton," The Book-Lover, Vol. IV, N°. 4, September/October 1903.
- "Frank R. Stockton's Method of Work," The Literary Digest, May 7, 1898.
- Golemba, Henry L. Frank R. Stockton, Twayne Publishers, 1981.
- Halsey, Francis W. "Frank R. Stockton." In American Authors and Their Homes, J. Pott & Company, 1901.
- Quiller-Couch, A. T. "Mr. Stockton." In Adventures in Criticism, Cassell & Company, 1896.
- 2003 Hall of Fame Inductee Frank R. Stockton, 1834–1902 – Author, Nutley, New Jersey Hall of Fame. Accessed February 9, 2011.
- "Death of Frank R. Stockton," The Literary Digest, May 3, 1902.
- Hackett, Alice Payne. Seventy Years of Best Sellers 1895–1965, p. 91 (1967)
- Zipes, Jack. When Dreams Came True: Classical Fairy Tales and Their Tradition, Second Edition, p. 192 (2007)
- Works by Frank R. Stockton at Project Gutenberg
- Frank R. Stockton public domain audiobooks from LibriVox
- Works by Frank R. Stockton at Unz.org
- Works by Frank R. Stockton at Internet Archive