|This article needs additional citations for verification. (October 2012)|
14 January 1899|
Würzburg, Kingdom of Bavaria, German Empire
|Died||30 January 1970
Würzburg, Bavaria, West Germany
|Allegiance|| German Empire (to 1918)
Weimar Republic (to 1933)
|Years of service||1917–45|
|Commands held||3rd Panzer Division
Panzer Lehr Division
LIII. Army Corps
World War I
|Awards||Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords|
Fritz Hermann Michael Bayerlein (14 January 1899 – 30 January 1970) was an officer in the German Army during the Second World War. He served as the operations officer for a number of significant units, most prominently with Erwin Rommel in the Afrika Korps. On his return to Europe he was made divisional commander for the 3rd Panzer Division, and later the Panzer Lehr Division. In the closing stages of the war he commanded the LIII Army Corps. He was a recipient of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords (German: Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes mit Eichenlaub und Schwertern). The Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross and its higher grade Oak Leaves and Swords was awarded to recognise extreme battlefield bravery or successful military leadership.
Early life and career
Fritz Bayerlein was born in Würzburg, Franconia, Germany. During World War I, Bayerlein joined the 9th Bavarian Infantry in 1917 and fought on the Western Front. He was wounded and received the Iron Cross 2nd Class when he was in the 4th infantry regiment. After the war Bayerlein was briefly a member of a volunteer battalion but was transferred to Regiment 45 in May 1919. He was made a member of the Reichswehr as a cadet sergeant. He went through officer training in 1921 and was promoted to lieutenant in 1922. He held several commands over the interwar years. In 1938 he was sent to the Military Academy. He was promoted to Major and was appointed the second staff officer for the 3rd Panzer Division, responsible for the division supply. In 1939 he was made chief of staff of the 10th Panzer Division, with which he served during the Polish and French campaigns.
World War II
At the beginning of World War II, Bayerlein served in the Invasion of Poland as the First General Staff Officer of General Heinz Guderian. He continued in this position during the invasion of France. Guderian's troops crossed the Meuse River near Sedan on May 14 and advanced until General Paul Ludwig Ewald von Kleist ordered Guderian to halt and not attack the British fleeing from Dunkirk.
In Operation Barbarossa, the invasion of Russia, during June 1941, Bayerlein was assigned to General Guderian's Panzer Group 2, Headquarters, as the Ia Operations officer. (page 50, "Bayerlein, from Afrikakorps to Panzer Lehr"). After the Kiev operation, Oberstleutnant Bayerlein was transferred from the Russian front and from the support of General Guderian to Generaloberst Erwin Rommel. He was transferred to the Führerreserve in August 1942, then reassigned to the Afrika Korps as Chief of Staff. He served under the command of Generalmajor Walter Nehring beginning in March 1942 upon Nehring's transfer to Africa.
Bayerlein's next assignment was in North Africa, where he served as a staff officer for the Afrika Korps. On 30 August 1942 during the battle of Alam Halfa Bayerlein was forced to take command of the Afrika Korps when General Walther Nehring was wounded. Later he served under Erwin Rommel and Wilhelm von Thoma. He again assumed command when British troops captured von Thoma at El Alamein on 4 November. When Rommel left Tunisia in March 1943, after the failed attack at Medenine (Operation Capri), Bayerlein was appointed German liaison officer under the new commander, Italian Giovanni Messe. In actual practice, Bayerlein acted with a fair degree of autonomy, at times disregarding the orders of his Italian superior. During his time in Africa Bayerlein developed muscular rheumatism and hepatitis. He was sent to Italy on sick leave before the German troops in Tunisia surrendered on 12 May 1943.
Bayerlein was sent to the Eastern Front in October 1943, his second assignment to Russia, to lead the 3rd Panzer Division. The division became surrounded at Kirovograd. Bayerlein led a break out through the Soviet encirclement against Hitler's orders. Following this he was reassigned to command the Panzer Lehr Division. They moved to Budapest, Hungary to train in March 1944. Bayerlein aided the Archbishop of Hungary, Cardinal Serédi in Budapest, in his efforts to stop the deporting of Jews in the Panzer Lehr Division sector. Panzer Lehr Division left Hungary in May 1944 to prepare for the Allied invasion. The Cardinal left notes in his diary praising Bayerlein for his humanitarianism.
The Panzer Lehr Division, filled with some of the best instructors pulled from Germany's tank schools, had developed a reputation as the toughest and most feared Panzer division of the Wehrmacht, and Bayerlein had a reputation for promptness and efficiency. The Panzer Lehr Division moved up from LeMans to Normandy on June 7, and took a brutal pounding from Allied aircraft in the transit. The division suffered particularly in the loss of trucks and transport vehicles.[Note 1] During the fighting in the heavy forested bocage country of Normandy, Bayerlein had great difficulty getting from one point to the next, with his staff cars being shot up. Twice his driver was killed. He took to getting about upon a motorcycle to spare any further losses to his staff. During the allied break out attempt at Operation Cobra, allied carpet bombing near the French village of Saint-Lô decimated the division. Bayerlein and the division staff officers had to take cover in the woods from the bombing. The remnants of Panzer Lehr Division slipped out of the Falaise pocket and moved east toward Vire in August 1944.
An effort was made to refit the division and bring it back up to strength prior to the German winter offensive in the west, "Wacht am Rhein" - the Ardennes Offensive. Bayerlein served under General Heinrich von Lüttwitz (XLVII Panzer Corps commander) and General Hasso von Manteuffel (commander of 5th Panzer Army) for the Ardennes Offensive which began on 16 December 1944. Under Bayerlein's command, Panzer Lehr surrounded and laid siege to Bastogne, althrough Bayerlein was accused by some observers that he had spent four hours attempting to seduce an American nurse instead of focusing his attention to the activities of his division in a time in which Bastogne could be taken without much resistance. Manteuffel once seriously considered relieving Luttwitz of his command due to the delays which the XLVII Panzer Corps encountered. The only reason Manteuffel relented is because the senior division commander is Bayerlein, and Manteuffel considered Bayerlein inferior to Luttwitz. Panzer Lehr also attempted to rescue the 2nd Panzer Division which is besieged at Celles, but was foiled by Allied air power and resistance from the US VII Corps.
Following the Ardennes Offensive, Bayerlein was relieved of his command and was placed on the Fuhrerreserve. Later, Bayerlein took command of the 53rd corps (LIII Armee Korps - Korpsgruppe Bayerlein) in February 1945. On 15 April 1945 General Bayerlein ordered his troops to surrender to the U.S. Army 7th Armored Division in the Ruhr Pocket. Bayerlein refused to comply with Hitler's scorched earth policy in the industrialized Ruhr valley. Bayerlein knew the war was lost, and had been since Africa. He arrested members of his staff who dissented with his plans to surrender the corps, and praised those that helped him. The surrender of the LIII Armee Korps in the Ruhr was the first large surrender of over 30,000 troops. This triggered the entire front to collapse and ended the fighting. Bayerlein surrendered to General Robert Hasbrouck, commanding general of the 7th Armored Division, on 19 April 1945. (ref: "Bayerlein")
After the war
Bayerlein was a prisoner of war from April 1945 through April 1947. During this time, with many other generals in Allied captivity, they wrote the European battle histories for the US Army Historical Division. Bayerlein cooperated with the Army historians. This, along with his surrender in the Ruhr, garnered him hostile threats from many of his fellow officers. (ref: "Bayerlein")
Bayerlein was released from captivity on 2 April 1947. After the war he wrote about military subjects and continued aiding the US Army Historical Division's efforts in documenting in the historical studies of World War II, European Theatre. During the 1960s, he was also a technical advisor to the Carl Foreman production of The Guns of Navarone. He died in his hometown Würzburg in 1970 from his illness in Africa. (ref: "Bayerlein")
- Iron Cross (1914)
- 2nd Class (30 August 1918)
- Wound Badge
- in black - 1918
- in silver - from Normandy Invasion, 1944
- Panzer Badge in Silver
- "Afrika" Cuffband
- Clasp to the Iron Cross (1939)
- 2nd Class (13 September 1939)
- Iron Cross (1939)
- 1st Class (27 September 1939)
- German Cross in Gold on 23 October 1942 as Oberst in the General Staff in the Deutsches Afrika-Korps
- Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords
- Knight's cross on 26 December 1941 as Oberstleutnant in the General Staff and Chief of the General Staff of the DAK
- 258th Oak leaves on 6 July 1943 as Oberst in the General Staff and Chief of Staff of the 1st Italian Army
- 81st Swords on 20 July 1944 as Generalleutnant and commander of the Panzer-Lehr-Division
- Mentioned twice in the Wehrmachtbericht on 11 January 1944 and 26 June 1944.
- Italian decorations from African Campaign:
- Wehrmacht Long Service Award IV to class II
- Honour Roll Clasp of the Army (5 March 1945)
References in the Wehrmachtbericht
|Date||Original German Wehrmachtbericht wording||Direct English translation|
|11 January 1944||Bei den Kämpfen im Raum von Kirowograd hat sich die brandenburgische 3. Panzerdivision unter Führung des Generalmajors Bayerlein besonders bewährt.||The third Brandenburg Panzer Division, led by Major General Bayerlein, particularly distinguished themselves in the battles in the vicinity of Kirovograd.|
|26 June 1944||Im Kampf gegen drei der besten englischen Divisionen hat sich die Panzerlehrdivision unter der Führung von Generalleutnant Bayerlein hervorragend bewährt.||In the fight against three of the best British divisions, the Panzer Lehr Division, led by Lieutenant General Bayerlein, has proven to be excellent.|
- "Many examples of the experiences and losses suffered by German formations moving up to the front are well known. Panzer Lehr, for instance, on 7 June alone lost 84 half-tracks, prime movers and self propelled guns, 40 fuel bowsers, 90 soft-skinned vehicles and five tanks as it made its way from LeMans to Caen."
- "Fritz Bayerlein". January 29, 2009. Retrieved 26 November 2014.
- Thomas 1997, p. 29.
- Patzwall & Scherzer 2001, p. 29.
- Scherzer 2007, p. 207.
- Fellgiebel 2000, p. 125.
- Fellgiebel 2000, p. 70.
- Fellgiebel 2000, p. 44.
- Die Wehrmachtberichte 1939–1945 Band 3, p. 8.
- Die Wehrmachtberichte 1939–1945 Band 3, p. 138.
- Willmott 1984, p. 89.
- Alman, Karl (1998). Ritterkreuzträger des Afrikakorps [Knight's Cross Bearers of the Afrika Korps] (in German). Rastatt, Germany: VPM Verlagsunion Pabel Moewig. ISBN 978-3-8118-1457-8.
- Berger, Florian (1999). Mit Eichenlaub und Schwertern. Die höchstdekorierten Soldaten des Zweiten Weltkrieges [With Oak Leaves and Swords. The Highest Decorated Soldiers of the Second World War] (in German). Vienna, Austria: Selbstverlag Florian Berger. ISBN 978-3-9501307-0-6.
- Fellgiebel, Walther-Peer (2000). Die Träger des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939–1945 – Die Inhaber der höchsten Auszeichnung des Zweiten Weltkrieges aller Wehrmachtteile [The Bearers of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross 1939–1945 — The Owners of the Highest Award of the Second World War of all Wehrmacht Branches] (in German). Friedberg, Germany: Podzun-Pallas. ISBN 978-3-7909-0284-6.
- Kemp, Anthony (1990 reprint). German Commanders of World War II (#124 Men-At-Arms series). Osprey Pub., London. ISBN 0-85045-433-6.
- Patzwall, Klaus D.; Scherzer, Veit (2001). Das Deutsche Kreuz 1941 – 1945 Geschichte und Inhaber Band II [The German Cross 1941 – 1945 History and Recipients Volume 2] (in German). Norderstedt, Germany: Verlag Klaus D. Patzwall. ISBN 978-3-931533-45-8.
- Rigg, Bryan Mark; Nicolai, Karl (2003). Hitlers "jüdische Soldaten" [Hitler's "Jewish Soldiers"] (in German). Paderborn, Germany: Schöningh. ISBN 978-3-506-70115-2.
- Scherzer, Veit (2007). Die Ritterkreuzträger 1939–1945 Die Inhaber des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939 von Heer, Luftwaffe, Kriegsmarine, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm sowie mit Deutschland verbündeter Streitkräfte nach den Unterlagen des Bundesarchives [The Knight's Cross Bearers 1939–1945 The Holders of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross 1939 by Army, Air Force, Navy, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm and Allied Forces with Germany According to the Documents of the Federal Archives] (in German). Jena, Germany: Scherzers Miltaer-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-938845-17-2.
- Spayd, P.A., ISBN 0-7643-1866-7, "Bayerlein: From Afrikakorps to Panzer Lehr, The Life of Rommel's Chief-of-Staff, Generalleutnant Fritz Bayerlein", Schiffer Publishing, Atglen, PA, USA, 2003.
- Spayd, P.A. & Gary Wilkins, ISBN 0-7643-2342-3, "Bayerlein: After Action Reports of the Panzer Lehr Commander from D-Day to the Ruhr", Schiffer Publishing, Atglen, PA, USA, 2005.
- Spayd, P.A. & Fritz Dittmar-Bayerlein, ISBN 0-7643-2065-3, "The Private Afrikakorps Photograph Collection of Rommel's Chief-of-Staff, Generalleutnant Fritz Bayerlein", Schiffer Publishing, Atglen, PA, USA, 2004.
- Spayd, P.A. & Nicole Insanally, ISBN 978-0-7643-3954-7, "Bayerlein: The Denazification Trial of Rommel's Chief-of-Staff and the Panzer Lehr Division Commander, Generalleutnant Fritz Bayerlein", Schiffer Publishing, Atglen, PA, USA, 2011.
- Thomas, Franz (1997). Die Eichenlaubträger 1939–1945 Band 1: A–K [The Oak Leaves Bearers 1939–1945 Volume 1: A–K] (in German). Osnabrück, Germany: Biblio-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-7648-2299-6.
- Willmott, H.P. June 1944. New York, NY: Blandford Press, 1984
- Die Wehrmachtberichte 1939–1945 Band 3, 1. Januar 1944 bis 9. Mai 1945 [The Wehrmacht Reports 1939–1945 Volume 3, 1 January 1944 to 9 May 1945] (in German). München, Germany: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag GmbH & Co. KG. 1985. ISBN 978-3-423-05944-2.
- Fritz Bayerlein in the German National Library catalogue
- Fritz Bayerlein @ Lexikon der Wehrmacht
- Bayerlein biography project
General der Panzertruppen Walther Nehring
|Acting Commander of Afrika Korps
31 August 1942
General der Panzertruppen Gustav von Vaerst
Generalleutnant Franz Westhoven
|Commander of 3. Panzer-Division
October 25, 1943 - January 5, 1944
Oberst Rudolf Lang
|Commander of Panzer-Lehr-Division
10 January 1944 - 7 June 1944
Generalmajor Hyazinth Graf Strachwitz von Gross-Zauche und Camminetz
Oberst Paul Freiherr von Hauser
|Commander of Panzer-Lehr-Division
September, 1944 - 15 January 1945
Generalmajor Horst Niemack