Geological Survey of Pakistan

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Geological Survey of Pakistan
State emblem of Pakistan.svg
Agency overview
Formed August 14, 1947; 66 years ago (1947-08-14)
Headquarters Quetta, Balochistan, Pakistan
Employees ~1,382
Annual budget ₨. 282.5 million
Agency executive Dr. Imran Khan
Director-General
Parent agency British Geological Survey
Key document Government of Pakistan
Website www.gsp.gov.pk

The Geological Survey of Pakistan (reporting name: GSP), is an autonomous and independent institution under Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Resources which is tasked and mandate with advancing the geoscience knowledge and carrying out systematic studies on official mapping and area surveying.[1]

The scientists of GSP thoroughly studies the landscape of Pakistan, its natural resources, and the natural hazards that threaten it.[1] Apart from studying geology, it has various major science disciplines, concerning biology, engineering, hydrology, chemistry and physics.[2] Due to its reputation and studies on fact-finding research, it has undertaken various efforts and studies on mineral exploration and extraction as well.[1]

Headquartered in Quetta, it has a main office in Islamabad and other regional offices in all over the country, and as of current, Dr. Imran Khan is the current and designated director-general of the Geological Survey of Pakistan.[3]

History[edit]

Earliest members of the GSI and BGS in 1851.

As early as 1836–51, the British crown government decided to set up the geological survey to explore the British Indian Empire under the British geologist David Williams who later founded the Geological Survey of India.[4]

After the independence of Pakistan from the British Indian Empire, the Geological Survey of India's north-west branch, staff and assets were evolved into creating to Geological Survey of Pakistan (GSP).[5]

recent earthquake in Pakistan, 2011/

At the time of its establishment, the GSP had consisted of only six geologist and two chemists under British scientist H.L. Crookshank, who was at that time was the most senior scientist working.[5] Immediately, H.L. Crookshank was appointed first director general of GSP which he remained until 1955. Under Crookshank, the technical staff was increased to 30 geoscientists in 1948.[5] In its formative years, the GSP did the pioneering work in hydrogeology and engineering but the efforts were transfer to engineering units of the military.[6] In 1949–55, the GSP initiated a rigorous tradition of field investigations with the governmental support, and reconnaissance technology was transferred to GSP through the Colombo Plan. Due to these activities, it increased the operational, scientific capabilities, and expansion of facilities of the GSP by 1956; it became one of the pioneering scientific institution of the government.[5] In 1955, English geologist, E.R. Gee, took over the GSP who initiated a massive expansion programme for GSP, including engineering, photogeology sections, as well as systematic publications journals were established. In 1959, the construction of new headquarters in Quetta was completed with Dr. N.M. Khan becoming first native GSP's director.[5]

A Topographic map of Pakistan.

By 1956, the GSP worked extremely close with the United States Geological Survey (USGS); the USGS established multi-million dollar work laboratories and facilities in all over the country and cooperation continued until 1970.[7] In 1957, the GSP discovered the large stockpiles of uranium in Sindh and Punjab.[8] In addition, the GSP helped established country's universities to teach geoscience and engineering as part of their university programmes.[5]

In 1970s, due to its expansion and scientific capabilities, the GSP was instrumental in carrying out work on nuclear geography, when its scientists frequently visited in various mountain ranges of the country.[9] The GSP notably carried out an ingenious work on nuclear geology and geography as part of the clandestine atomic bomb project, and played an integral role in the selection of the test sites.[9] Throughout this time, the GSP's scientists continued exploring uranium and plutonium, as well as other material sources in all over the country.[8]

In 1992, The GSP announced the discovery of the huge deposits of coal at Thar Desert in Sindh.[10] The GSP sponsored and published various studies on the geology of Thar Desert.[11] In 1990s, the GSP issued and produced several maps of atlas of Pakistan, with mapping at 1:1 000 000 scale and a variety of themes published at 1:5 000 000.[12] Economic liberalization policies of government in 1992 led the ADB to sponsor a 10 year long multi-billion dollar mineral exploration programme to cover 14 identified mineralized zones in the country.[13] In 1990s, the GSP also discovered the large deposits of Gold and Copper in Western Balochistan, southwest Pakistan.[14]

In 2000s, the GSP gained international and public prominence when its scientists discovered and unearthed the first ever dinosaur fossils in Pakistan.[15] The remains were thought to be around ~70 million years old and were found by geologists mapping the Barkhan district of the country's arid Balochistan province.[15] The specimens include legs and vertebrae.[15]

List of GSP's Directors[edit]

Annotated and historical map of Pakistan.
    • 1947–55 H.L. Crookshank[5]
    • 1955–59 E.R. Gee[5]
    • 1959-1967 Nur M. Khan[7]
    • 1967–72 Abdul Mannan Khan[7]
    • 1972–77 M. Mohammad Sharif
    • 1977-79 A.N. Khan[16]
    • 1979–84 M. Mohammad Sharif
    • 1984–93 Asrarullah Ahmed[17]
    • 1993–2000 Abdul Latif Ghulam[18]
    • 2000-03: Abdul Latif[15]
    • 2003–05: Ahmad Hussain
    • 2005-10:Ghazanfar Abbas
    • 2010- : Imran Khan[1]

GSP publications[edit]

The GSP researchers, engineers, technicians, and scientists publish the results of their science in a variety of ways.[19] Many researchers publish their science in peer-reviewed scientific journals as well as in one of a variety of series that includes series for preliminary results, maps data, and final results. All publications are published by the GSP and are available as public domains.[19]

Accelerated increase in environment[edit]

In 2006, the Geological Survey's two scientists published an assessed report, predicting the hydrological threat posed to the country.[20] The survey was conducted immediately after the devastated earthquake in 2005, and the GSP's scientists began to study the hazards in the region, which were still geologically unstable.[20]

In 2009, the GSP submitted another report that recommended the potentially hazardous areas of Northern Pakistan where the earthquake and seismic activities were suspected. The survey also found out that the earthquake cracks were found in all over the Atta Abad lake region. The GSP declared the eastern part of the Atta Abad as "High Hazard" area, and recommendations were submitted to evacuate the area.[21]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Staff editor and writer. "Introduction of the Geological Survey of Pakistan". Govt. of Pakistan. Geological Survey of Pakistan. Retrieved 13 January 2014. 
  2. ^ Staff. "Geostudies at the GSP". Govt. of Pakistan. GSP (Geostudies). Retrieved 13 January 2014. 
  3. ^ Staff writer. "Headquarters and regional offices of the Geological Survey of Pakistan". Govt. Pakistan. Headquarters and regional offices of the Geological Survey of Pakistan. Retrieved 13 January 2014. 
  4. ^ copy in Bavarian State Library (also Horizontal and Vertical Sections)
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h editor, Richard J. Ward, (2008). The challenge of development : theory and practice in human resource management. Piscataway, N.J.: AldineTransaction. ISBN 0202362264. 
  6. ^ Staff editor. "Historical perspective". Govt. Pakistan. archives of the GSP. Retrieved 14 January 2014. 
  7. ^ a b c Calkins, James A.; S. Jamiluddin; Kamaluddin Bhuyan; Ahmad Hussain (1970s). "Geology and Mineral Resources of the Chitral-Partsan area, Hindu Kash to Northern Pakistan". Geological Survey Professional Paper 716-G (Department of Interior, Department of State and Geological Survey of Pakistan). 
  8. ^ a b Mian, Zia; A. H. Nayyar. "Exploring Uranium Resource Constraints on Fissile Material Production in Pakistan" (PDF). The Princeton University,. Princeton University Press. Retrieved 18 January 2014. 
  9. ^ a b Saleh, R. M. (9 May 1999). "When Mountain Moves". The Nation. Retrieved 14 January 2014. 
  10. ^ Staff, editor and writers, et al. "Thar Coal Power Generation". Govt of Pakistan. Embassy of Pakistan, Washington D.C. Retrieved 18 January 2014. 
  11. ^ Staff. "Discovery Of Ignite Coal In Thar Desert". Govt. Pakistan. GSP, Pakistan. Retrieved 18 January 2014. 
  12. ^ Parry, Robert B. (2000). World mapping today (2 ed.). Bowker-Saur, 2000. 
  13. ^ Brown, Charles E. (2002). World energy resources : International Geohydroscience and Energy Research Institute ; with 44 tables. Berlin [u.a.]: Springer. ISBN 3540426345. 
  14. ^ et al. "Pakistan - Discover the Potential". PAKISTAN - DISCOVER THE POTENTI. Retrieved 18 January 2014. 
  15. ^ a b c d Staff writer (2 December 2000). "First dinosaur find in Pakistan". BBC Pakistan. 
  16. ^ Staff editors and et. al (1979). "Postilla". Journal of Peabody Museum of Natural History 171 (191). 
  17. ^ Miller, edited by K.J. (1984). The International Karakoram Project. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521263395. 
  18. ^ Staff editors and et al.; Government Publications, (1993). "Records of the Geological Survey of Pakistan". Records of the Geological Survey of Pakistan, Geological Survey of Pakistan 93 (40). 
  19. ^ a b "Latest Research Publications". Govt Pakistan. Geological Survey, Research. Retrieved 18 January 2014. 
  20. ^ a b Adams, Daivd (10 February 2006). "Flash flood threat to Pakistan quake survivors". The Guardian. Retrieved 18 January 2014. 
  21. ^ et al. "Causative Mechanisms of Hunza Valley". GSP Pakistan, 2009. Retrieved 18 January 2014. 

External links[edit]